Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯ai   'woe; wolf'

Semantic Field(s): Wolf


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lā interj lo! W7
wā interj woe! W7
wālāwā interj wellaway! W7
weilawei interj lit. woe! lo! W7
Middle English: wa interj woe! W7
welaway interj wellaway! W7
wo interj woe! alas! W7
English: wail vb to lament, express sorrow audibly AHD/W7
wellaway interj re: sorrow/lamentation AHD/W7
woe interj re: grief/regret/distress AHD/W7
woe n deep suffering from grief/misfortune/affliction AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: weinig adj few TLL
Old Saxon: wē adv woe, ill ASD
wē interj woe! ASD
Old High German: wē adv woe, ill ASD
wē interj woe! ASD
German: wenig adj few TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: vāla, væla vb to wail W7
vei interj woe! W7
Icelandic: vei adv woe, ill ASD
vei interj woe! ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: wai adv woe, ill ASD
wai interj woe! ASD
Latin: vae interj woe! W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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