Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯eg̑h-   'to move, drive, carry, convey'

Semantic Field(s): to Move, to Drive, to Bear, Carry


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fēn n cart, carriage LRC
Welsh: ar-wain vb to carry LRC
cy-wain vb to drive LRC
gwain n cart, carriage LRC
Old English: aweg adv out, away ASD
ēar-wicga n.masc earwig W7
wǣg n.masc wave, billow LRC
wǣge n.fem weight; scale, balance W7
wæg-līðend n.masc lit. wave-traveler LRC
wæg-þel n.neut ship, lit. wave-planking LRC
wǣn, wæg(e)n n.fem wain, wagon W7
weg n.masc way LRC
wegan vb to weigh, move, bring, carry W7
wicga n.masc (kind of) insect W7
wiht n.fem weight W7
wōh adj bent, crooked W7
Middle English: alway(es) adv always W7
away adv away AHD
conveyen vb to convey W7
convoyen vb to convoy W7
erwigge n earwig W7
invectif n invective W7
vexen vb to vex W7
voyage n voyage W7
waggen vb to wag W7
wain n wain W7
-way adv.sfx -ways W7
we adj/n wee; little bit W7
weght n weight W7
weyen vb to weigh W7
wiglen vb to wiggle W7
English: advection n horizontal movement of air mass AHD/W7
always adv invariably, at all times AHD/W7
away adj/adv gone, absent; along, on the way AHD/W7
convection n action/process of conveying AHD/W7
convex adj curved/rounded like exterior of sphere/circle AHD/W7
convey vb.trans to lead, conduct AHD/W7
convoy vb.trans to guide, accompany AHD/W7
deviate vb to turn aside AHD/W7
devious adj remote, located off easiest path AHD/W7
earwig n insect with large pair of forceps AHD/W7
envoi n explanatory/commendatory concluding remarks AHD/W7
envoy n foreign minister plenipotentiary AHD/W7
evection n perturbation of moon's orbit due to sun's gravitation AHD/W7
graywacke n coarse dark gray sandstone/fine-grained conglomerate AHD/W7
Greenway prop.n road through Bree in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
invective adj denunciatory, re: insult/abuse AHD/W7
inveigh vb.intrans to rail, protest/complain bitterly/vehemently AHD/W7
invoice n bill, itemized list of goods sold AHD/W7
Norwegian prop.n person/language of Norway LRC
obviate vb.trans to make unnecessary, see/dispose of beforehand AHD/W7
obvious adj opposite, being in way/in front AHD/W7
ochlocracy n government by mob AHD/W7
ochlophobia n abnormal fear of crowds AHD
ogee n S-shaped molding AHD/W7
ogive n diagonal rib/arch across Gothic vault AHD/W7
pervious adj permeable, admitting passage AHD/W7
previous adj preceding, going before in time/order AHD/W7
Stonewain prop.n narrow valley in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
thalweg n line tracing lowest points in valley/river bed AHD
trivial adj commonplace, ordinary AHD/W7
trivium n three liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, logic AHD/W7
vector n quantity comprising direction and magnitude AHD/W7
vehement adj strong, re: exertion of great force/energy AHD/W7
vehicle n means of transport AHD/W7
vex vb.trans to bring trouble/distress/agitation to AHD/W7
via prep by way of AHD/W7
viaduct n bridge (on series of narrow arches) AHD/W7
viatical adj re: way, road, journey AHD
vogue n leading place in acceptance/popularity AHD/W7
voyage n journey, act/instance of traveling AHD/W7
wag vb to stir, be in motion AHD/W7
wagon n 4-wheeled vehicle for bulky item transport AHD/W7
wagon-lit n (railroad) sleeping car AHD/W7
wain n large/heavy wagon for farm use AHD/W7
way n thoroughfare for travel/transportation AHD/W7
waybread n bread for journey in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wayfarer n traveler AHD
wayfaring adj traveling AHD
Waymeet prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wee adj little, very small AHD/W7
weigh vb to measure mass/weight (via scale/balance) AHD/W7
weight n amount that thing weighs AHD/W7
wiggle vb to jiggle, move to/fro with quick jerky/shaking motion AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wain, wein n.masc wain, wagon, carriage, vehicle ASD
wega, weia vb to weigh, move ASD
wei n.masc way ASD
Middle Dutch: wagen n wagon W7
Dutch: weegschaal n weighing scales TLL
weg n way LRC
wegen vb to weigh LRC
wegens prep on account of TLL
Old Saxon: weg n.masc way ASD
Old Low German: reidi-wagan n.masc chariot, lit. riding-wagon ASD
wegan vb to weigh ASD
Middle Low German: wiggelen vb to wiggle W7
Old High German: wāga n scales, weights KDW
wāga n.fem weight, balance ASD
wagan n.masc wagon, carriage ASD
weg n.masc way W7/ASD
wegan vb to weigh, move, carry ASD
Middle High German: wacken vb to totter W7
German: Waage n.fem scales, balance, weighing device TLL
wackeln vb to wag, wiggle, totter LRC
Wagen n.masc wagon LRC
wägen vb.trans to weigh TLL
Weg n.masc way, road LRC
wegen prep on account of TLL
wiegen vb to weigh LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: vagn n wagon LRC
vega vb to move LRC
vegr n.masc way, road LRC
vætt n weight W7
Icelandic: vagn n.masc wain, wagon, carriage, vehicle ASD
vág, vágir n.fem weight; [pl.] scales, balance ASD
vega vb to weigh, move, carry ASD
vegr n.masc way ASD
Danish: vej n way LRC
vægt n weight, scales TLL
Swedish: vagn n wain, wagon TLL
våg n weighing scales TLL
väg n way LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-wigan vb to wag, move, shake, wiggle ASD
un-wāhs adj bent, crooked ASD
wigs n.str.masc way, road, journey LRC
Crimean Gothic: *waghen, vvaghen n wagon CGo
Latin: advectio, advectionis n.fem act of bringing W7
advectus n.masc act of bringing W7
adveho, advehere vb to bring, carry to W7
convectus vb.ptc brought together W7
conveho, convehere vb to move/bring together W7
convexus adj convex, vaulted, concave W7
devius adj devious, out of the way W7
evectio, evectionis n.fem rising, carrying out W7
evectus vb.ptc risen, carried out W7
eveho, evehere vb to carry out, raise up W7
invectivus adj insulting W7
invectus vb.ptc carried in W7
inveho, invehere vb to carry in W7
obviam adv in the way W7
obvius adj in the way W7
pervius adj pervious, accessible W7
praevius adj leading the way W7
trivialis adj trivial, commonplace, found everywhere W7
trivium n.neut crossroads W7
vector n.masc carrier W7
vectus vb.ptc carried W7
vehemens, vehementis adj being impetuous W7
vehiculum n.neut carriage, conveyance W7
veho, vehere vb to drive, carry, convey W7
vexo, vexare vb to vex, trouble, agitate W7
vexus vb.ptc bent, crooked W7
via n.fem way, road W7
viaticum n.neut traveling money W7
viaticus adj re: journey W7
Vulgar Latin: convio, conviāre vb to escort, accompany W7
invio, inviare vb to send on one's way W7
Late Latin: convectio, convectionis n.fem act of bringing together W7
deviatus vb.ptc gone astray W7
devio, deviāre vb to go astray W7
obviatus vb.ptc met W7
obvio, obviāre vb to meet, withstand W7
Medieval Latin: Norwegia n.fem Norway W7
Old Spanish: bogar vb to row W7
Old French: conveier vb to escort, accompany W7
envei n.masc message W7
envoier vb to send on one's way W7
voiage n.masc trip, voyage W7
Middle French: conveier vb to convey W7
convoier vb to convoy W7
envoi n.masc message W7
invectif adj insulting W7
ochlocratie n.fem ochlocracy W7
véhément adj violent, passionate, impetuous W7
vexer vb to vex, outrage W7
vogue n.fem vogue W7
French: convexe adj convex W7
envoi n.masc message, act of sending W7
envoyé vb.past.ptc sent W7
envoyer vb to send W7
véhicule n.masc vehicle W7
wagon n.masc wagon, (railroad) car W7
wagon-lit n.masc wagon-lit W7
Old Italian: voga n.fem vogue, fashion W7
vogare vb to row W7
Lithuanian: vāžis n cart LRC
vèzti vb to carry, convey LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vesti vb to carry, convey LRC
vozŭ n carriage LRC
Homeric Greek: ὀχέω vb to bear, endure; be borne LRC
ὄχος n carriage, chariot LRC
Greek: ὀχλοκρᾰτία n.fem ochlocracy LS
ὄχλος n.masc mob, crowd, throng LS
Avestan: vazaiti vb to travel LRC
vazyam n load LRC
Sanskrit: váhati vb to travel LRC
vahítram n ship, vehicle LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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