Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯eg- : ū̆g-, uks-   'damp, moist; to wet, sprinkle, irrigate; ox'

Semantic Field(s): Wet, Damp, Water, Ox, Steer


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: oxa n.masc ox ASD/W7
ūr n.masc urus; (name for) U-rune ASD
Middle English: humour n humor W7
ox n ox W7
English: aurochs n urus AHD/W7
humectant n substance promoting moisture retention AHD/W7
humid adj damp, re: perceptible moisture AHD/W7
humor n normal functioning body fluid/semifluid AHD/W7
hygro- pfx moisture, humidity AHD
ox, oxen n.str domestic bovine mammal(s) AHD/W7
urus n (extinct) long-horned wild ox W7
wake n track left by body moving in water AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: os n ox TLL
Old Saxon: ohso n ox IEW
Old High German: ohso n ox W7
ūrohso n aurochs W7
Middle High German: ürochse n aurochs CDC
German: Auerochse n.masc aurochs LRC
Ochs n.masc ox LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: *uruz n urus; (name for) U-rune LRC
Old Norse: oxi, uxi n.masc ox KNW
vǫk n hole in ice W7
vǫkr adj damp W7
Icelandic: uxi n ox ASD
Danish: okse n ox TLL
Swedish: oxe n ox TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: auhsa n ox ASD
Latin: humectans, humectantis adj/vb.ptc moistening W7
humecto, humectare vb to moisten W7
humectus vb.ptc moist W7
humeo, humēre vb to be moist W7
humidus adj moist, humid W7
humor n.fem humor, moisture W7
uxor, uxoris n.fem wife LRC
Middle French: humeur n.fem humor, fluid W7
French: humide adj damp, humid W7
Greek: ὑγρός adj wet, moist, fluid LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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