Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. u̯(e)id-   'to vide, see, wit, know'

Semantic Field(s): to See, to Know


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: druid n druid, lit. tree-seer GED
find adj white, clearly visible AHD
Welsh: gwyddom we know LRC
gwyn(n) adj white AHD
Gaulish: druides adj knowing certainly GED
druides n.masc druid, lit. tree-seer W7
Old English: ætwītan vb to reproach W7/ASD
and-wīs adj expert, skillful ASD
gewis(s) adj sure, certain, knowing W7/ASD
gewītan, gewāt, gewiton, gewiten vb.str.I to go, depart LRC
sām-wīs adj dull, simple, foolish, lit. half-wise ASD
wīs adj wise W7
wīsdōm n.masc wisdom W7
wīse n.fem wise, state, condition W7
wita n.masc sage, elder, counsellor, wise man ASD
witan, wāt, witon, wiste vb.ptpr.I to wit, observe, be aware LRC
wītan, wāt, witon, witen vb.str.I to go, depart W7
wīte n.neut pain, torment, punishment W7
wītega n.masc wizard, prophet, soothsayer W7
Middle English: advice n advice W7
a(d)visen vb to advise AHD
atwiten vb to reproach, upbraid W7
avys n advice, opinion, deliberation MEV
envie n envy W7
evident adj evident W7
guide n guide W7
guise n guise W7
idol n idol W7
iwis adv iwis W7
providen vb to provide W7
prudent adj prudent W7
purveien vb to purvey W7
purveu n purview W7
storie n story W7
surveyen vb to survey W7
vewe n view W7
visage n visage W7
viser n visor, mask W7
vision n vision W7
visiten vb to visit W7
wis, wys adj wise W7
wisdom n wisdom W7
wise n wise W7
wit n wit W7
wite n wite W7
witen vb to wit W7
wot (I/he) wot(s), know(s) W7
woten vb to wot W7
wysard n wizard W7
English: advice n counsel, recommendation re: decision/course of conduct AHD/W7
advise vb to counsel, give advice to AHD/W7
Andwise prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
belvedere n structure designed to command view AHD/W7
black-a-vised adj dark-complexioned AHD/W7
clairvoyant adj discerning, unusually perceptive AHD/W7
colcannon n boiled/mashed potatos/cabbage AHD
druid n Celtic priest: seer, wizard, magician AHD/W7
eidetic adj re: visual images with almost photographic accuracy AHD/W7
eidolon n phantom, unsubstantial image AHD/W7
envy n malice AHD/W7
evident adj clear to vision/understanding AHD/W7
guide n one who leads/directs another AHD/W7
guidon n small flag AHD
guise n costume, form/style of dress AHD/W7
guy n rope/chain/rod attached as brace/guide AHD/W7
hadal adj re: ocean below 6 km AHD/W9
Hades prop.n god of underworld, ruler of dead (Greek mythology) LRC
history n tale, story AHD/W7
idea n real pattern of which physical things are imperfect representations AHD/W7
ideo- pfx idea AHD/W7
idocrase n vesuvianite: complex silicate mineral AHD/W7
idol n symbol/representation of deity used as object of worship AHD/W7
idyll n simple descriptive literary work re: peace/contentment AHD/W7
improvise vb to extemporize, sing/recite/compose on spur of moment AHD/W7
interview n formal consultation/evaluation AHD/W7
invidious adj tending to cause envy/discontent/animosity AHD/W7
iwis adv surely, certainly AHD/W7
kaleidoscope n instrument for viewing patterns in bits of colored glass AHD/W7
penguin n flightless aquatic bird AHD
polyhistor n polymath AHD/W7
previse vb.trans to foresee AHD/W7
provide vb to take precautionary measures AHD/W7
prudent adj wise, foresighted AHD/W7
purvey vb.trans to supply (e.g. provisions) AHD/W7
purview n scope/limit/purpose/body of statute AHD/W7
review n revision AHD/W7
revise vb.trans to review in order to correct/improve AHD/W7
Samwise prop.n simple hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
story n tale, history AHD/W7
supervise vb.trans to oversee, superintend AHD/W7
survey vb to appraise, examine re: value/condition/situation AHD/W7
twit vb.trans to rally, subject to light reproach/ridicule AHD/W7
unwitting adj unaware, inadvertent AHD
Veda prop.n ancient scripture written in Sanskrit (Hinduism) LRC
vide vb to see, view AHD/W7
view n inspection, act of seeing/examining AHD/W7
visa n passport endorsement AHD/W7
visage n face/countenance/appearance of person AHD/W7
vision n something seen in dream/trance/ecstasy AHD/W7
visit vb to go see AHD/W7
visor n front piece of helmet AHD/W7
vista n prospect, view through/along opening/avenue AHD/W7
voyeur n one obtaining sexual gratification by viewing sex acts/organs AHD/W7
wisdom n knowledge, accumulated philosophic/scientific learning AHD/W7
Wise prop.n Eldar wizard(s) in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wise adj sage, having wisdom AHD/W7
wise n way, manner AHD/W7
wiseacre n smart aleck, one making pretensions to wisdom AHD/W7
wit n mind, memory AHD/W7
wit vb to know, learn AHD/W7
wite n blame, responsibility AHD/W7
witenagemot n council of the wise AHD/W7
witness n observer TLL
witness vb to see, observe LRC
wizard n sage, wise man; sorcerer W7
British English: wot vb to wit AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wīs n.fem wise, mode, fashion ASD
wis adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
wīs-dō n.masc wisdom, discretion ASD
wita vb to wit, be aware, have knowledge ASD
wīte n.neut pain, torment, punishment ASD
Middle Dutch: wijs-segger n wizard, soothsayer W7
Dutch: gei n brail W7
Old Saxon: wis adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
wīsa n.fem wise, mode, fashion ASD
wīs-dō n.masc wisdom, discretion ASD
witan vb to wit, be aware, have knowledge ASD
wīti n.neut torment, punishment ASD
Old High German: giwis adj sure, certain ASD
giwisso adv surely, certainly W7
wis adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
wīs(a) n.fem wise, mode, fashion W7/ASD
wīs-tuom n.masc wisdom, discretion ASD
wīzan vb to punish W7
wīzi n.neut trial, torment, punishment W7/ASD
wīz(z)ago n.masc wizard, prophet, soothsayer W7/ASD
wizzan vb to wit, be aware, have knowledge W7/ASD
wizzi n wisdom, knowledge W7
German: Druide n.masc druid LRC
gewiß adj sure, certain ASD
Wissen n.neut knowledge LRC
wissen vb to wit LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: veita, veitt vb to grant, give; help; pay, yield LRC
vita, vissi vb to wit, understand, be aware of LRC
víss adj wise, sure, certain LRC
víti n.neut penalty, punishment, liability LRC
Icelandic: vita vb to wit, be aware, have knowledge ASD
vísa n.fem wise; stanza ASD
vís-dómr n.masc wisdom, discretion ASD
víss adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
víti n.neut fine, punishment ASD
Swedish: vis adj wise TLL
vitna vb to witness TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: inweitan vb.str.I to worship LRC
weis adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
*witan vb.ptpr to wit, be aware, have knowledge ASD
witan vb.wk.III to observe, keep watch LRC
Latin: evidens, evidentis adj/vb.ptc evident, obvious W7
historia n.fem history, tale, inquiry W7
idea n.fem Platonian ideal W7
idyllium n.neut idyll W7
improvisus adj unforeseen W7
invideo, invidēre vb to envy, look askance at W7
invidia n.fem envy, jealousy W7
invidiosus adj envious, invidious W7
invidus adj envious, looking with the evil eye W7
praevisus vb.ptc foreseen, expected W7
providens, providentis adj/vb.ptc provident, foreseeing W7
provideo, providēre vb to provide, see ahead W7
provisus vb.ptc foreseen W7
prudens, prudentis adj prudent W7
revideo, revidēre vb to see again W7
reviso, revisere vb to look at again W7
revisus vb.ptc looked at again W7
videns, videntis adj/vb.ptc seeing W7
videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum vb to see, know LRC
visa things seen W7
visio, visionis n.fem sight W7
visito, visitāre vb to visit W7
viso, visāre vb to go see W7
visus vb.ptc seen W7
Late Latin: idolum n.neut idol W7
Medieval Latin: supervideo, supervidēre vb to supervise W7
Old French: avis n.masc advice, opinion, deliberation W7
aviser vb to advise W7
envie n.fem lust, envy W7
estorie n.fem story W7
guier vb to guide AHD
guise n guise, manner AHD
idole n.fem idol W7
veeir vb to see W7
vis n.masc face W7
visage n.masc face W7
visiere n.fem visor W7
vision n.fem sight W7
visiter vb to visit W7
voir vb to see W7
vue n.fem sight W7
Anglo-French: viser n.masc face W7
Middle French: entrevue n.fem interview W7
evident adj evident, obvious W7
guide n.masc guide W7
guidon n guidon W7
porveeir vb to provide W7
prudent adj prudent W7
revoir vb to look over W7
revue n.fem act of looking over W7
surveeir vb to look over W7
veeir vb to see W7
veue n.fem sight W7
voir vb to see W7
voyeur n.masc voyeur, one who sees W7
vue n.fem sight W7
French: clairvoyant adj one who foresees W7
hadal adj hadal W9
improviser vb to improvise W7
réviser vb to look at again W7
visa n.masc visa W7
voir vb to see W7
voyant vb.ptc seeing, who sees W7
voyeur n.masc one who spies on other's private life W7
Old Provençal: guidar vb to guide AHD
Italian: belvedere n.masc turret, terrace, belvedere W7/CID
improvvisare vb to improvise W7
improvviso adj sudden W7
vedere vb to see W7
vista n.fem sight, view W7
visto vb.ptc seen W7
Old Prussian: waidimai vb to know LRC
Lithuanian: išvýsti, išvýsta, išvýdo vb to see, witness LRC
Old Church Slavonic: viděti, viždǫ, vidiši vb to see LRC
věděti, věmь, věsi vb to see, know LRC
Homeric Greek: εἴδος n.neut form, figure, appearance W7
εἴδωλον n.neut ghost, phantom W7
Greek: Αἵδης prop.n.masc Hades LRC
εἰδητικός adj eidetic, re: form/appearance W7
εἰδύλλιον n.neut.dim idyll, idyllic poem W7
*εἴδω vb to see LRC
ἰδέα n.fem form, nature, idea W7
ἰδού adv behold LRC
ἱστορία n.fem history, inquiry LRC
ἵστωρ, ἴστωρ adj knowing, learned LS
ἵστωρ, ἴστωρ n.masc/fem judge, witness; inquirer, historian LS
οἶδα vb to know LRC
πολυ-ΐστωρ adj very learned LS
Classical Armenian: gitem vb to know LRC
gtanem vb to find, get, obtain LRC
Avestan: vaēðe vb to know LRC
Sanskrit: veda n wisdom, knowledge W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
1=1st person
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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