Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. u̯eik-, u̯eig-, extended form of u̯ei-   'to bend, curve; exchange, pass around'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, to Trade


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wāg, wǣg n.masc wough, (wattle) wall ASD/KEW
wīcan vb to yield W7
wice n.masc wych AHD/ASD
wīcing n.masc viking, sea robber ASD
wīcing-sceaþa n.masc viking ASD
wīcing-sceaþe n.fem piracy ASD
wicu, wucu n.fem week LRC
Middle English: vecche n vetch W7
vicar n vicar W7
vice- pfx vice- W7
vis- pfx vice- W7
weike adj weak W7
weke n week W7
wiker n wicker W7
wiket n wicket W7
English: vetch n herbaceous twining leguminous plant AHD/W7
vicar n one serving as agent/substitute AHD/W7
vicarious adj delegated, serving instead of someone/something else AHD/W7
vice- pfx one who takes place of AHD/W7
vicissitude n mutability, natural change AHD/W7
viking n pirate, plunderer, seafaring marauder W7
weak adj lacking strength AHD/W7
week n seven-day period AHD/W7
wicker n withe, small pliant twig/osier AHD/W7
wicket n small gate/door AHD/W7
wough n.obs partition, indoor wall, house wall OED
wych n type of elm (with pliant branches) AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wāch n wough OED
wīka vb to yield, give way ASD
wike n.fem week ASD
Middle Dutch: wiket n wicket W7
Old Saxon: wīkan vb to yield, give way ASD
Old Low German: wika n.fem week ASD
Old High German: wehha, wohha n.fem week ASD/W7
wīchan vb to yield, give way ASD
German: weich adj weak, soft, pliant TLL
Woche n.fem week TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: veikr adj weak W7
vika n.fem week LRC
vík n.fem creek, inlet, small bay ICE/ODE
víkingr n.masc viking, freebooter ICE/ODE
Old Icelandic: víking n.fem piracy, freebooting voyage ICE
vīkva vb to move, turn; yield, recede IEW
Icelandic: vika n.fem week ASD
víkja vb to yield, give way ASD
Danish: vig n creek, inlet, small bay ICE
Swedish: vecka n week TLL
vek adj weak TLL
vik n bay TLL
vikker n wicker, willow W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: waíhsta n.wk.masc corner LRC
wikō n.fem week ASD
Latin: vicarius adj replacing, in replacement W7
vice adj in alternance W7
vicia n.fem vetch W7
vicis n.fem stead, change, alternation W7
vicissim adv in turn W7
vicissitudo n.fem misadventure W7
vincio, vincīre vb to bind W7
Late Latin: vice- pfx in turn, in replacement W7
Old North French: veche n.fem vetch W7
Middle French: vice- pfx in turn, vicarious W7
vicissitude n.fem vicissitude, misadventure W7
Italian: invece adv instead TLL


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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