Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯eik̑-, u̯ik̑-, u̯oik̑o-   'house, village, settlement'

Semantic Field(s): House


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wīc n.neut abode; town, village W7
Middle English: baillifwik, bailiewike n bailiwick CDC/W7
diocise n diocese W7
parisshe n parish W7
parochiall adj parochial W7
vesinage n vicinage, vicinity W7
vilain n villain W7
vilein n villein W7
village n village W7
wik n abode, village W7
English: androecium n aggregate of microsporophylls in seed-plant flower AHD/W7
autoecious adj passing all life-cycle stages on same host AHD/W7
bailiwick n office/jurisdiction of bailiff AHD/W7
bidonville n shanty town of improvised dwellings AHD
diocese n territorial jurisdiction of bishop AHD/W7
dioecious adj with male/female sex organs in different individuals AHD/W7
dioicous adj having archegonia/antheridia on separate plants AHD/W7
ecesis n establishment of plant/animal in new habitat AHD/W7
ecumenical adj general/worldwide in extent/influence/application AHD/W7
heteroecious adj passing different life-cycle stages on alternate/unrelated hosts AHD/W7
monoecious adj hermaphroditic, with male/female sex organs in same individual AHD/W7
nasty adj disgustingly dirty, physically repellent AHD
parish n ecclesiastical unit committed to one pastor AHD/W7
parochial adj re: church parish AHD/W7
Vaisya prop.n upper-caste commercial/agricultural Hindu LRC
vicinage n vicinity, neighboring/surrounding district AHD/W7
vicinity n proximity, nearby area AHD/W7
villa n country estate AHD/W7
village n settlement larger than hamlet but smaller than town AHD/W7
villain n villein AHD/W7
villanelle n (chiefly French) verse form AHD/W7
villein n free common peasant villager AHD/W7
-wich, -wick n.sfx abode, village (e.g. Warwick) LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wīk n.fem abode, village ASD
Old Saxon: wīk n.neut abode, village ASD
Old High German: wīch, wīh n.masc abode, village ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: weihs n.neut village GED
Latin: dioecesis n.fem administrative division W7
vicinitas, vicinitatis n.fem neighbor W7
vicinus adj neighboring W7
vīcus, vīcī n.masc village, hamlet; row of houses LRC
villa n.fem country estate W7
Late Latin: oecumenicus adj ecumenical W7
parochia n.fem parish W7
parochialis adj parochial W7
Medieval Latin: villanus adj rustic W7
New Latin: androecium n.neut androecium W7
dioicus adj dioicous W7
ecesis n.fem ecesis W7
Old French: village n.masc village W7
ville n.fem farm; village W7
Middle French: diocise n.masc diocese W7
parochial adj parochial W7
parroche n.fem parish W7
vesin adj neighboring W7
vesinage n.masc neighborhood W7
vicinité n.fem vicinity, neigborhood W7
vilein adj re: low social class W7
French: villanelle n.fem pastoral song/dance/poetry W7
Italian: villa n.fem country-house W7
Lithuanian: viẽšpats n lord, master LRC
Old Russian: vĭsĭ n village LRC
Homeric Greek: (Ϝ)οἶκος n house, home LRC
Greek: διοικεσις n.fem management, administration LS
διοικέω vb to govern, keep house LS
ἐνοικέω vb to inhabit, dwell in LRC
κατοικέω vb to dwell LRC
οἴκαδε adv home LRC
οἰκέω vb to dwell, inhabit LS
οἰκησις n.fem dwelling, inhabitation LS
οἰκία n.fem house LRC
οἰκίον n.neut house, abode LS
οἴκοι adv at home LRC
οἶκόνδε adv (to his) home LRC
οἶκος n.masc house, abode LRC
οἰκουμένη n.fem the inhabited world LRC
οἰκουμενικός adj ecumenical W7
πάροικος adj parochial, neighboring LS
Late Greek: παροικία n.fem parish LRC
πάροικος adj Christian, re: parish LRC
Old Persian: vith- n house; clan; village LRC
Avestan: vaēso n house LRC
vīs- n house; clan; village LRC
vīsaiti vb to enter LRC
Sanskrit: víś n clan, tribe; dwelling; settlement W7
vaiśya n upper-caste Hindu traditionally assigned to commercial/agricultural occupation W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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