Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯eip-, u̯eib-   'to turn, whip, sway, vibrate'

Semantic Field(s): to Turn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mere-wīf n.neut water-witch, woman living in lake ASD
wīf n.neut wife, woman LRC
wīf-man(n), wīf-men n.str.masc woman, lit. wife-man W7/ASD
wīm-man(n), wīm-men n.str.masc woman, lit. wife-man ASD
wimpel n.masc wimple W7
wīpian vb to wipe W7
Middle English: waif n waif W7
weiven vb to waive W7
w(h)ippen vb to whip W7
wif n wife W7
wimble n wimble W7
wimpel n wimple W7
wipen vb to wipe W7
woman, women n woman W7
English: Entwives adult female Ents in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gimp n ornamental braid/cord for trimming AHD/W7
guimpe n blouse worn under jumper/pinafore AHD/W7
guipure n heavy decorative lace AHD/W7
vibrate vb to swing/move to and fro AHD/W7
waif n unclaimed property (e.g. washed up by sea) AHD/W7
waive vb.trans to forsake, abandon, give up AHD/W7
waiver n intentional abandonment/relinquishment of right/claim/privilege AHD/W7
whip vb to take/pull/jerk/move quickly/forcefully AHD/W7
wife, wives n (married) woman W7
wimble n auger, instrument for boring holes AHD/W7
wimple n cloth covering worn over head/around neck/chin by women AHD/W7
wipe vb.trans to rub/clean with something soft AHD/W7
woman, women n adult female human being W7
British English: charwoman n woman hired to clean house/office W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wīf n.neut wife, woman ASD
Middle Dutch: wimmel n wimble W7
wippen n to whip, sway, move up and down W7
Old Saxon: wīf n.neut wife, woman ASD
Middle Low German: wimmel n wimble W7
Old High German: wīb, wīp n.neut wife, woman W7/ASD
wīfan vb to wind around W7
wimpal n.masc wimple, garment ASD
German: wippen vb to whip, sway, move up and down LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: vimpill n.masc hood, veil, wimple ASD
víf n.neut wife, woman ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: biwáibjan vb.wk.I to wrap, clothe LRC
Latin: vibratus vb.ptc shaken, vibrated W7
vibrō, vibrāre vb to shake, vibrate W7
Old French: guimple n wimple, garment AHD
guiper vb to cover with silk AHD
Old North French: waif adj lost, unclaimed W7
weyver vb to waive W7
Anglo-French: weyver vb to waive W7
wimble n.masc wimble W7
French: guimpe n.fem nun's wimple, chemisette W7
guipure n guipure W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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