Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 7. u̯el-, u̯elə-, u̯lē-   'to turn, wind; round, voluble'

Semantic Field(s): to Turn, to Wind, Wrap, Round (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gewealc n.neut rolling, tossing LRC
stæð-weall n.masc shore-wall LRC
walu n.fem wale W7
wealcan vb to roll, toss W7
wealcian vb to roll up, muffle up W7
weall n.masc wall, rampart LRC
weallan vb to (cause to) well, boil, bubble W7
wealwian vb to roll W7
welig n.masc willow W7
weoloc n.masc whelk, shell-fish W7
wiella n well W7
wile- n weel, fishtrap W2I
wilige n.fem willy, basket W2I/ASD
wyllan vb to wish W7
Northumbrian: welle n well W7
Middle English: avalen vb to let fall W7
devolven vb to devolve W7
intervalle n interval W7
involven vb to involve, roll/wrap up W7
revolven vb to revolve W7
vale n vale W7
valen vb to vail, sink, reduce W7
valey n valley W7
volume n volume W7
voute n vault W7
wal n wale, choice W7
wale n wale, weal W7
walet n wallet W7
walken vb to walk W7
walkien vb to walk W7
wall n wall W7
walwen vb to wallow W7
welke n whelk W7
welle n well W7
wellen vb to well W7
welteren vb to roll, toss, turn over W7
wilghe n willow W7
wilowe n willow W7
English: anthelmintic adj expelling/destroying parasitic intestinal worms AHD/W7
archivolt n ornamental molding around arch AHD/W7
circumvolve vb to roll about, (cause to) revolve AHD/CDC
convolve vb to writhe, roll together AHD/W7
devolve vb to roll onward/downward AHD/W7
elecampane n coarse European composite herb AHD/W7
elytron n anterior wing protecting posterior wing AHD/W7
evolve vb to emit, give off AHD/W7
helicon n large circular bass tuba AHD/W7
helicopter n rotary-winged aircraft AHD/W7
helix n something spiral in form AHD/W7
helminth n worm AHD/W7
ileus n bowel obstruction AHD/W7
interval n pause, time between states/events AHD/W7
inulin n tasteless white polysaccharide AHD/W7
involucrum n surrounding sheath/envelope AHD/W7
involve vb.trans to enfold/envelop (thus encumber) AHD/W7
multivoltine adj producing several broods per season AHD
mycelium n interwoven filamentous hyphae mass AHD/W7
neurilemma n outer sheath of nerve fiber AHD/W7
platyhelminth n soft-bodied flattened worm AHD/W7
revolve vb to ponder, turn over in mind AHD/W7
vail vb.trans to lower (as sign of respect/submission) AHD/W7
vale n dale, valley AHD/W7
vallation n rampart, earthwork wall AHD/W7
valley n elongated depression between hills/mountains AHD/W7
valve n leaf of folding/double door AHD/W7
valvule n small valve/valvular structure AHD/W7
vault n arched (masonry) structure AHD/W7
vault vb to bound vigorously AHD/W7
volt n horse tread/gait: turning around center while going sideways AHD/W7
voluble adj rotating, easily rolling/turning AHD/W7
volume n scroll AHD/W7
volute n scroll/spiral-shaped form AHD/W7
volutin n granular basophilic substance in microorganisms AHD/W7
volva n membranous sac/cup in gill fungus AHD/W7
volvox n green flagellate in spherical colony AHD/W7
voussoir n wedge-shaped piece forming arch/vault AHD/W7
vulva n external part of female genital organs AHD/W7
wale n weal, welt, streak/ridge on skin AHD/W7
walk vb to roam/wander on foot AHD/W7
wall n long high thick rampart/enclosure AHD/W7
wallet n bag carrying miscellaneous travel articles AHD/W7
wallow vb.intrans to roll about in indolent/ungainly manner AHD/W7
waltz n round dance in 3/4 time AHD/W7
weel n slotted/wickerwork fishtrap W2I
well n pool fed by spring, water issuing from earth AHD/W7
well vb to pour forth, rise to surface W7
Wellinghall prop.n Ent dwelling behind waterfall in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wellspring n fountainhead, source of supply W7
welter vb.intrans to toss, writhe AHD/W7
whelk n large marine snail AHD/W7
Whitwell prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Willow prop.n evil old Shire tree in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
willow n tree/shrub in family Salicaceae AHD/W7
willy n large wicker basket W2I
British English: wale n choice AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wal n.masc wall ASD
walla vb to well, spring out, bubble forth ASD
Middle Dutch: walken vb to knead, press, full W7
welteren vb to roll W7
Dutch: vallei n valley TLL
wilg n willow TLL
Old Saxon: wal n.masc wall ASD
wallan vb to well, boil, burn ASD
Old High German: ge-walchen vb to thicken, condense ASD
wala n wale, choice W7
wallan vb to well, bubble, grow hot ASD
walzan vb to turn, roll W7
wella n wave W7
Middle High German: wall n wall W7
wellen vb to (cause to) well W7
wilge n willow W7
German: Inulin n inulin W7
Volutin n volutin W7
walzen vb to roll, dance W7
Walzer n.masc waltz W7
Welle n wave TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: val n choice W7
valr adj round W7
völr n round stick W7
Icelandic: valka vb.wk to roll ASD
Latin: convolvo, convolvere vb to roll up/together W7
devolvo, devolvere vb to roll down W7
evolvo, evolvere vb to unroll W7
ileus n.masc intestinal osbtruction W7
intervallum n.neut interval, space between ramparts W7
inula n.fem elecampane (an herb) W7
involucrum n.neut involucrum W7
involvo, involvere vb to involve, wrap/roll in W7
revolvo, revolvere vb to revolve, roll back W7
valgus adj bow-legged W7
vallatus vb.ptc surrounded by walls W7
valles, vallis n.fem valley W7
vallum n.neut rampart W7
vallus n.masc stake, palisade W7
valva n.fem one battant of double door W7
volubilis adj volubile, talkative W7
volumen n.neut volume, roll of writing W7
voluta n.fem volute W7
volva, vulva n.fem covering, integument W7
volvō, volvere, volvī, volūtum vb to roll, undergo, turn around LRC
volvox adj rolling W7
Vulgar Latin: volsorium n.neut voussoir W7
volsus vb.ptc turned, vaulted W7
volvita n.fem turn, vault W7
volvito, volvitāre vb to turn, leap W7
Late Latin: vallatio, vallationis n.fem earthwork wall W7
Medieval Latin: archivoltum n.neut archivolt W7
enula n.fem elecampane (an herb) W7
New Latin: elytron n.neut sheath, wing cover W7
mycelium n.neut mycelium W7
neurilemma n.neut neurilemma W7
valva n.fem valve W7
valvula n.fem.dim small valve W7
volvox n.masc genus of green flagellates W7
vulva n.fem vulva W7
Old French: aval n.masc downward W7
avaler vb to swallow W7
val n.masc little valley W7
valee n.fem valley W7
Middle French: avaler vb to swallow, let fall W7
intervalle n.masc interval W7
valer vb to let fall W7
volter vb to turn W7
voluble adj rotating W7
volume n.masc book, volume W7
voûte n.fem vault W7
French: archivolte n archivolt CDC
hélice n helix, propeller TLL
hélicoptère n.masc helicopter W7
val n.masc valley W7
volte n.fem turn W7
voussoir n.masc voussoir W7
Old Italian: voltare vb to turn, leap W7
Italian: archivolto n archivolt CDC
vòlta n.fem turn, direction W7
Lithuanian: vėl adv again LRC
Latvian: vēl adv still, yet LRC
Homeric Greek: ἑλιξ n.fem coil/spiral-shaped thing LS
Greek: εἰλεός n.masc ileus LS
εἰλέω vb to turn, wind, roll LS
εἴλημα n.neut coil, wrapper, covering LS
ἑλῐκη n.fem coil, spiral, willow LS
ἕλμινς n.fem (parasitic) worm LS
ἑ̑λος n.masc nail; wart, callus LS
Sanskrit: ulva n womb W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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