Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3a. u̯er-, u̯r̥mi-s, u̯r̥mo-s   'worm'

Semantic Field(s): Worm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wyrm, wurm, weorm n.masc worm ASD
wyrm-tunge n.wk.fem bitter-spoken person LRC
Middle English: worm n worm W7
English: vermeil n vermilion AHD/W7
vermi- pfx worm AHD/W7
vermicelli n pasta like spaghetti (but thinner) AHD/W7
vermicular adj resembling worm in form/motion AHD/W7
vermin n noxious/mischievous/disgusting small animal(s) AHD/W7
worm n reptile, serpent, dragon; earthworm AHD/W7
Wormtongue prop.n epithet for Grima in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: worm n worm TLL
Old Saxon: wurm n.masc worm ASD
Old High German: wurm n.masc worm ASD/W7
German: Gewürm n.coll vermin TLL
Wurm n.masc worm LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ormr n worm: snake KNW
Icelandic: ormr n.masc worm ASD
Danish: orm n worm TLL
Swedish: orm n worm: snake TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: waurms n.masc worm ASD
Latin: vermiculus n.masc.dim small worm W7
vermis n.masc worm W7
Late Latin: vermi- pfx vermi- W7
New Latin: vermicularis adj vermicular W7
Middle French: vermeil adj red W7
vermin n.fem vermin, worm(s) W7
Italian: vèrme n.masc worm W7
vermicello, vermicelli n.masc vermicelli W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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