Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3h. u̯er-, u̯er-t-   'to turn, wind, invert'

Semantic Field(s): to Turn, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: gwerthyd n spindle, distaff LRC
Old English: inweard adj inward W7
-wards sfx -ward W7
-weard(es) sfx -ward (in some specified direction) W7
weorþ adj worthy W7
weorðan vb to worth W7
wyrd adj weird W7
Middle English: adverse adj adverse W7
anniversarie n anniversary W7
averten vb to avert W7
controversie n controversy W7
conversen vb to converse W7
converten vb to convert W7
diverten vb to divert W7
inward adj inward W7
perverten vb to pervert W7
reverten vb to revert W7
stalwart, stalworth n stalwart W7
subverten vb to subvert W7
vers n verse W7
-ward(s) sfx -ward W7
werd n weird, fate, destiny W7
wird adj weird W7
worth n worth W7
worthen vb to worth W7
English: adverse adj antagonistic, acting against/in contrary direction AHD/W7
advertise vb to inform, notify, call attention to W7
anniversary n annual recurrence of date marking notable event AHD/W7
avert vb.trans to turn (e.g. eyes) away/aside AHD/W7
bouleversement n reversal AHD
controversy n dispute, discussion marked by opposing claims AHD/W7
converse vb.arch to become engaged/occupied AHD/W7
convert vb to move from one view/belief/party to another AHD/W7
divert vb to deviate, turn aside AHD/W7
evert vb.trans to upset, overthrow AHD/W7
extroversion n act/state/habit of attending to/obtaining gratification from outside self AHD/W7
extrovert adj re: extroversion AHD/W7
introvert vb to turn/draw inward AHD/W7
invert vb.trans to turn inside out/upside down AHD/W7
inward adj inner, situated on inside AHD/W7
malversation n corruption/misbehavior in trust/office/commission AHD/W7
obvert vb.trans to turn to present different surface to view AHD/W7
pervert vb.trans to corrupt, avert from truth/propriety AHD/W7
re(d)- pfx back, again, in turn TLL
retro- pfx backward W7
revert vb.intrans to go/come back AHD/W7
subvert vb.trans to ruin, overturn/overthrow from foundation AHD/W7
tergiversate vb.intrans to apostatize, become renegade AHD/W7
transverse adj extended, lying across AHD/W7
universe n cosmos, every thing/phenomenon observed/postulated AHD/W7
university n degree-granting research institution W7
versatile adj variable, changing/fluctuating readily AHD/W7
verse n line of metrical writing AHD/W7
version n translation from another language AHD/W7
versus prep against AHD/W7
vertebra n bony/cartilaginous segment in spinal column AHD/W7
vertex n point opposite to/farthest from base in figure AHD/W7
vertigo n giddiness, disordered dizzy/whirling state AHD/W7
vortex n mass of fluid in whirling/circular motion AHD/W7
-ward adj.sfx that moves/tends/faces/is directed toward AHD/W7
-ward(s) adv.sfx in (specified) spatial/temporal direction AHD/W7
weird adj/n (re:) fate, destiny AHD/W7
worth adj/n (having) material/monetary value AHD/W7
worth vb.intrans.arch to become, happen AHD/W7
worthy adj estimable, having worth/value W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: werð n.neut worth, value ASD
werth adj worth(y) ASD
wertha vb to worth, arise, be made ASD
Dutch: adverteeren vb to advertise TLL
universiteit n university TLL
Old Saxon: -ward sfx -ward ASD
werð n.neut worth, value ASD
werðan vb to worth, arise, be made ASD
werth adj worth(y) ASD
wurð n.fem weird, death ASD
Old Low German: werð n.neut worth, value ASD
werth adj worth(y) ASD
Old High German: inwert adj inward W7
-wart, -wert sfx -ward W7
werd adj worth(y) W7
werd n.neut worth, value ASD
werdan vb to worth, arise, be made W7
wert n worth, price IEW
wurt n.fem weird, chance ASD/IEW
German: extravertiert adj extrovert W7
Extroversion n.fem extroversion W7
extrovertiert adj extrovert W7
Universität n.fem university TLL
werden vb to worth LRC
Wert n.masc worth LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: verþa vb to worth LRC
Icelandic: urðr n.fem weird, one of the Norns ASD
verð n.neut worth, value ASD
verða vb to worth, arise, be made ASD
verðr adj worth(y) ASD
Danish: avertere vb to advertise TLL
universitet n university TLL
Swedish: universitet n university TLL
värde n worth TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: wairþa n.neut worth, value ASD
wairþan vb.str.III to worth, arise, be made LRC
wairþs adj worth(y) ASD
Latin: adversus adv against, opposite to LRC
adverto, advertere vb to turn W7
anniversārius adj recurring annually W7
averto, avertere vb to avert, turn away W7
controversia n.fem controversy W7
controversus adj disputable, turned opposite W7
conversor, conversārī vb.dep to live, abide; frequent, converse ELD/W7
converto, convertere vb to change, turn around W7
diverto, divertere vb to divert, turn in opposite direction W7
everto, evertere vb to eject, turn out W7
inverto, invertere vb to invert, turn inside W7
obverto, obvertere vb to turn toward W7
perverto, pervertere vb to pervert, overturn W7
proversus vb.ptc turned forward W7
proverto, provertere vb to turn forward W7
re(d)- pfx re- TLL
retrō adv/pfx back, retro- TLL
retroversus adj turned backward W7
reverto, revertere vb.trans to turn/force back W7
revertor, reverti vb.dep.intrans to revert, come back W7
subverto, subvertere vb to subvert, turn from beneath W7
tergiversatus vb.ptc having turned one's back, using pretexts W7
tergiversor, tergiversāri vb.dep to shuffle, turn the back W7
transversus vb.ptc crossed, turned across W7
transverto, transvertere vb to cross W7
universum n.neut universe W7
universus adj whole, entire W7
versatilis adj turning easily W7
versatus vb.ptc active W7
versō, versāre, versāvī, versātum vb to turn LRC
versus, versus n.masc line, row; verse LRC
versus adv toward(s), against, so as to face W7
versus vb.ptc turned W7
vertebra n.fem joint W7
vertex, verticis n.masc whirl(pool); summit, top of the head W7
vertigo, vertiginis n.fem vertigo, action of turning/whirling W7
vertō, vertere, vertī, versum vb to turn, change, overturn LRC
vertor, verti vb.dep to turn W7
vortex, vorticis n.masc whirl(pool); summit, top of the head W7
Medieval Latin: anniversāria n anniversary AHD
versio, versionis n.fem act of turning W7
New Latin: vortex, vorticis n.masc vortex W7
Portuguese: través adv through, across TLL
Spanish: través adv through, across TLL
Old French: advers adj adverse AHD
avertir vb to avert AHD
convertir vb to convert W7
vers n.masc verse W7
Middle French: advers adj contrary W7
avertir vb to avert W7
converser vb to converse W7
divertir vb to divert W7
malversation n.fem malversation W7
malverser vb to be corrupt W7
pervertir vb to pervert, overturn W7
revertir vb to revert, turn back W7
subvertir vb to subvert W7
verser vb to turn, pour W7
version n.fem version, rendition of fact W7
French: bouleversement n bouleversement W7
travers adv/prep through, across TLL
vers n verse TLL
versatile adj that turns/changes easily W7
Italian: attraverso adv/prep through, across TLL
verso adv toward TLL
Lithuanian: ver̃sti, ver̃čia, ver̃tė vb to force, compel LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vrěmę n.neut time LRC
Avestan: varət- vb to turn LRC
Sanskrit: vártate vb to roll, turn round LRC
vartáyati vb to move, set in motion LRC
Tocharian B: wrattsai prep against LRC
Tocharian A: wärt- vb to throw LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at