Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3i. u̯er-, u̯r-ei-   'to clench the teeth; wroth, confused'

Semantic Field(s): Anger, Obscure


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bewrēon, biwrāh, biwrigon, biwrigen vb.str.I to cover, conceal LRC
brēr, brǣr n.masc brier, bramble ASD/W7
wrǣþþo, wrǣþþu n.fem wrath W7
wrāþ adj wroth, hostile LRC
wrēon, wrāh, wrigon, wrigen vb.str.I to hide, cover LRC
wrigian vb to wry, turn W7
wriða n.masc wreath, band, ring W7
wrīðan vb to writhe, twist, bind W7
Northumbrian: breer n.masc brier, bramble ASD
Middle English: brere n brier W7
wrath n wrath W7
wrethe n wreath W7
wrien vb to wry W7
writhen vb to writhe W7
wroth adj wroth W7
English: briar, brier n plant with woody/thorny/prickly stem AHD/W7
brusque adj markedly short/abrupt AHD/W7
wrath n rage, violent anger AHD/W7
wreath n something intertwined into circular shape AHD/W7
writhe vb to twist into coils/folds AHD/W7
wroth adj angry, wrathful, highly incensed AHD/W7
wry vb to writhe, twist AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: wrēð adj wroth ASD
Old High German: gi-rīdan vb to wry, writhe, rotate ASD
reid adj curled, twisted, trembling ASD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: rīða vb to wry, writhe W7
Icelandic: reiði n.fem wrath ASD
reiðr adj wroth ASD
ríða vb to wry, writhe, knit, wind ASD
French: brusque adj brusque W7
Homeric Greek: ῥίπτω vb to throw down LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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