Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. u̯er-   'to shut, close, cover; guard, warn, save'

Semantic Field(s): to Shut, Close, to Cover, to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: warnian vb to warn, take heed W7
wer n.masc weir, dam W7
werian, werede, wered vb.wk.I to wear; defend, protect LRC
Middle English: apert adj/adv plain, open; plainly, openly MEV
aperture n aperture W7
barbican n barbican W7
coveren vb to cover W7
coverlet, coverlite n coverlet W7
garette n garret, watchtower W7
garisoun n garrison, protection W7
garment n garment W7
garnishen vb to garnish W7
overt adj overt W7
overture n overture, opening W7
pert adj pert W7
warantie n warranty W7
warenne n warren W7
warnen vb to warn W7
warrant n warrant, protector W7
warranten vb to warrant W7
were n weir, dam W7
English: ambarella n tropical/equatorial fruit tree AHD
aperient adj laxative, re: gently moving bowels AHD/W7
aperitif n alcoholic drink taken as appetizer AHD/W7
aperture n hole, opening, open space AHD/W7
barbican n outer defensive work AHD/W7
cover vb to guard from attack AHD/W7
coverlet n bedspread AHD/W7
garage n shelter/repair shop for automobiles AHD/W7
garment n article of clothing AHD/W7
garnish vb.trans to trim, decorate, embellish AHD/W7
garniture n trimming, embellishment AHD/W7
garret n room/unfinished part of house just under roof AHD/W7
garrison n military post AHD/W7
guaranty n undertaking to remedy another's default/miscarriage AHD/W7
operculum n lid/covering flap AHD/W7
overt adj manifest, open to view AHD/W7
overture n proposal, initiative toward action/agreement AHD/W7
pert adj impudent, saucily free/forward AHD/W7
warn vb to give prior notice of evil/danger AHD/W7
warrant n sanction, authorization AHD/W7
warrant vb.trans to declare/maintain with certainty AHD/W7
warrantee n person to whom warranty is made AHD/W7
warranty n real covenant binding grantor/heirs to warrant/defend title AHD/W7
warren n place for (keeping) small game AHD/W7
weir n fence/enclosure in waterway for fishing AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: wāra n trust, care W7
warnōn vb to warn, take heed W7
werēn vb to warrant W7
werēnto n guarantor W7
werien, werren vb to defend W7
Middle High German: wer n.masc weir, dam ASD
German: warnen vb to warn, caution LRC
Wehr n.masc weir, dam ASD
wehren vb to defend LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ver n.neut sea, fishing place W7
verja, varði vb to defend, protect LRC
Icelandic: varna vb to warn, beware ASD
Latin: aper(a)tus vb.ptc opened W7
aperiens, aperientis vb.pres.ptc opening W7
aperio, aperire vb to open W7
apertura n.fem aperture, orifice W7
cooperio, cooperīre vb to open W7
operculum n.neut cover W7
operiō, operīre vb to close, cover W7
Vulgar Latin: operiō, operīre vb to open W7
opertura n.fem overture; orifice W7
Late Latin: apertīvus n purgative, aperitif AHD
Medieval Latin: aperitivus n.masc aperitif W7
barbacana n.fem barbican W7
New Latin: operculum n.neut covering flap of plant W7
Old French: aperitif n purgative, aperitif AHD
apert vb.ptc open(ed) W7
barbacane n.fem barbican W7
garantir vb to guarantee W7
garison n.fem garrison, troop of guardians W7
garnement n.masc equipment W7
garnesture n.fem garniture W7
garnir vb to equip W7
Old North French: warantie n.fem warranty W7
warant(ir) vb to warrant W7
Anglo-French: coverelyth n.masc coverlet W7
Middle French: aperitif adj aperient, re: opening W7
garantie n.fem guaranty W7
garite n.fem garret, watchtower W7
garnement n.masc equipment W7
garnir vb to warn, equip; garnish W7
garniture n.fem garniture W7
o(u)vert adj overt, open W7
ouvrir vb to open W7
overture n.fem overture; orifice W7
French: apéritif n.masc aperient, aperitif W7
couvrir vb to cover W7
garage n.masc garage, covered parking W7
Old Provençal: garida n.fem garret, watchtower, protection W7
Lithuanian: varýti, vãro, vãrė vb to be engaged LRC
Greek: ἐρύκω vb to hold back LRC
ῥύομαι vb to save LRC
Old Iranian: *parivāraka- adj protective AHD
Persian: barbār n guard AHD
barbārkhāna n barbican AHD
Sanskrit: āmravāṭakaḥ n ambarella AHD
vāṭaḥ n enclosure AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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