PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: u̯erdh-, u̯redh- 'to grow; high'
|English:||anorthite||n||reddish/whitish feldspar (in igneous rocks)||AHD/W7|
|orth(o)-||pfx||straight, upright, vertical||W7|
|orthodox||adj||conforming to official doctrine||AHD/W7|
|orthopedics||n||correction/prevention of skeletal deformities||AHD/W7|
|orthotics||n||science re: devices to support/supplement limbs/joints||AHD|
|Latin:||orthogonius||adj||orthogonal, with straigth angles||W7|
|Late Latin:||orthodoxus||adj||orthodox, following strict beliefs||W7|
|New Latin:||orthōsis||n||brace, artificial support||AHD|
|orthogonal||adj||orthogonal, with straight angles||W7|
|Old Church Slavonic:||roditi, roždǫ, rodiši||vb||to bear, produce||LRC|
|Homeric Greek:||ὀρθός||adj||right, straight, erect, upright||LS|
|ὀρθόω||vb||to rise/raise up straight||LRC|
|Greek:||orthogōnios||adj||orthogonal, with straight angles||W7|
|ὀρθότης||n.fem||erectness, upright posture||LS|
|ὀρθόω||vb||to make straight||LS|
|Late Greek:||orthodoxos||adj||orthodox, with a right opinion||W7|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|AHD||=||Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|
|LS||=||Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|