Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯ī̆-   'apart, separate from, in two; both'

Semantic Field(s): to Separate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wīd adj wide, broad W7
wīde adv far, widely LRC
wiþ prep with, along LRC
wiðer adv/prep against W7
Middle English: vice n vice, flaw, disorder, deficiency W7
wide adj wide W7
with prep with, from W7
withers withers W7
English: iso- pfx same, alike, equal TLL
vice n wickedness, moral corruption/depravity AHD/W7
vicious adj depraved, having nature/quality of vice/immorality AHD
vitiate vb.trans to pollute, contaminate AHD/W7
vitiligo n skin disorder (with smooth white spots) AHD/W7
vituperate vb.trans to berate, abuse/censure severely/abusively AHD/W7
wide adj vast, having great extent AHD/W7
wide(ly) adv over great extent/distance W7
Wídfara prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
with prep against, in opposition to AHD/W7
withers ridge between shoulder bones of horse/quadruped AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wīd adj wide, broad ASD
with prep to, towards ASD
withir adv/prep against ASD
Old Saxon: wīd adj wide, broad ASD
wīdo adv far, widely ASD
wið prep to, towards ASD
wiðar adv/prep against ASD
Old High German: widar adv/prep back, against W7
wīt adj wide, broad W7
wīto adv far, widely ASD
German: weit adj wide, broad LRC
wider prep against LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: við prep to, with, against LRC
Icelandic: við prep to, towards ASD
viðr adv/prep against ASD
vīða adv far, widely ASD
víðr adj wide, broad ASD
Danish: bagved prep behind TLL
ved prep beside TLL
Swedish: vid adj wide TLL
vid prep beside TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: wiþra adv/prep by, near, against LRC
Latin: vitiatus vb.ptc vitiated W7
vitiligo n.fem vitiligo, tetter W7
vitio, vitiare vb to vitiate W7
vitium n.neut vice, fault W7
vituperatus vb.ptc blamed, criticized W7
vitupero, vituperāre vb to blame, criticize W7
Old French: vice n.masc vice, fault W7
Lithuanian: vìsas, visà pron all, everyone LRC
Latvian: visi pron everyone, everybody LRC
viss adj/pron all, everything LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vъtoryi, vъtoroje, vъtoraja nbr.ord second LRC
vьsь adj/pron all, every; whole LRC
Greek: ἴσος adj same, alike, equal TLL
Sanskrit: vi adv apart W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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