Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯et-   'year'

Semantic Field(s): Year


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: feis n sow LRC
Old Breton: guis n sow LRC
Cornish: guis n sow LRC
Middle English: bellwether n bellwether W7
veel n veal W7
wether n wether W7
English: bellwether n leader, one that takes initiative AHD/W7
etesian adj recurring annually AHD/W7
inveterate adj firmly established via persistence AHD/W7
veal n calf (bovine) AHD/W7
veteran n old/former soldier AHD/W7
veterinary adj re: art/science of animal medicine AHD/W7
vitellus n yolk AHD/W7
wether n ram castrated before sexual maturity AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: widar n ram, wether W7
German: Widder n.masc ram, wether LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: veðr n ram, wether LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: wiþrus n year-old lamb LRC
Umbrian: vituf calves LRC
Latin: etesius adj etesian, re: summer W7
inveteratus vb.ptc untouched by age W7
invetero, inveterāre vb to age W7
veteranus adj old, of long experience W7
veterīna(e) beasts of burden W7
veterīnus adj re: beasts of burden W7
vetus, veteris adj old, aged W7
vitellus n.masc.dim small calf W7
vitulus n.masc calf (bovine) W7
Middle French: veel n.masc veal W7
Old Lithuanian: vetušas adj old, aged LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vetъčъ adj old LRC
Albanian: vit n year LRC
Homeric Greek: ἔτος n.neut year LRC
Greek: etēsios adj etesian, re: summer W7
Luwian: ušša- n year LRC
Hieroglyphic Luwian: usa- n year LRC
Hittite: witt- n year LRC
Sogdian: wtšnyy adj old LRC
Sanskrit: vatsá- n year LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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