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Old Iranian Online

Old Persian: Base Form Dictionary

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

<a-> 'this' -- <aita-> 'he, this' -- <aiva-> 'one' -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- <atar> 'within, among' -- <ada> 'then' -- <adam> 'I' -- [Pokorny eg̑-, eg̑(h)om, eg̑ō :: ego, I (pronoun)]   -- <aniya-> 'other' -- [Pokorny 2. an- :: there, other side]   -- <anušiya-> 'follower, ally' -- <apa> 'away' -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <apara-> 'later, after' -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <aparam> 'after' -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <apiy> emphatic particle -- [Pokorny epi, opi, pi :: at, near, epi-]   -- <abiy> 'to, toward, against' -- [Pokorny ebhi? : obhi : bhi :: from, around, (up) to, etc.]   -- <ay> 'go' -- <ar> 'move toward' -- <Arakadri-> a mountain in Persia -- [Pokorny ond-, n̥d- :: rock, stone]   -- <arika-> 'treacherous, evil, hostile' -- <ariya-> 'Aryan' -- [Pokorny ario-? :: host, lord, master]   -- <arta-> 'Truth' -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <artāvan-> 'blessed, righteous' -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <arštā-> 'righteousness, Truth' -- <aršti-> 'spear, weapon' -- <ava-> 'this, that' -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <ava> 'away, down' -- [Pokorny 3. au-, au̯e, u̯ē̆- :: down, away from]   -- <avā> 'thus, as' -- <avaθa> 'thus, then' -- <avadā> 'then, there' -- <avahya-> 'ask for help' -- <asman-> 'sky' -- <azdā> 'known' -- [Pokorny 1. med- :: to mete, allot; medicate, give advice]   -- <ah> 'be' -- <i> 'go' -- <I> 'one' -- <IX> 'nine' -- <idā> 'here' -- <ima-> 'he, this' -- [Pokorny 1. med- :: to mete, allot; medicate, give advice]   -- <u> 'well, good' -- [Pokorny su-, sū- :: good, well]   -- <utā> 'and' -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <ud> 'up' -- [Pokorny ū̆d- :: out, away, up(wards)]   -- <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' -- [Pokorny upér, upéri :: over, above]   -- <upastā-> 'aid, support' -- <uvāmaršiyu-> 'self-inflicted death' -- <kā> (denotes generalization) -- <kāma-> 'wish, desire' -- [Pokorny kā- :: to like, wish, desire]   -- <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' -- [Pokorny koro-s, kori̯o-s :: war, army, warrior]   -- <kaufa-> 'mountain' -- [Pokorny 2. keu-, keu̯ə- :: to bend]   -- <kan> 'dig' -- <kamna-> 'few' -- <Kambūjiya-> 'Cambyses' -- <kar> 'do, make' -- <kašciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <Kūru-> 'Cyrus' -- <X> 'ten' -- <XIV> 'fourteen' -- <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' -- [Pokorny kþē(i)-, kþə(i)- :: to gain, acquire, possess]   -- <xšaça-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' -- [Pokorny kþē(i)-, kþə(i)- :: to gain, acquire, possess]   -- <Xšayāršan-> 'Xerxes' -- [Pokorny kþē(i)-, kþə(i)- :: to gain, acquire, possess]   -- <xšnā> 'learn, know' -- <gāθu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' -- [Pokorny gā-, gem- :: to come, go]   -- <Gaumāta-> 'Gaumata' -- <gam> 'go' -- <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July -- [Pokorny gher- :: warm, hot]   -- <gasta-> 'evil, harm' -- [Pokorny gedh- :: to hit, push; harm, injure]   -- <gud> 'hide' -- <grab> 'seize, grab' -- <ca> 'and, but' -- <cayakaram> 'how much, how many' -- <ciça-> 'seed, lineage' -- <jatar-> 'smiter' -- <jad> 'pray, ask' -- <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- <jīvā-> 'life' -- [Pokorny 3. gei̯-, and gei̯ə- :: to live, survive]   -- <jiva-> 'living' -- [Pokorny 3. gei̯-, and gei̯ə- :: to live, survive]   -- <taumā-> 'family' -- [Pokorny teuk- :: germ, seed, sprout, offspring]   -- <taxš> 'be active, build, carve, make' -- <tars> 'fear, be afraid' -- <tunuvat-> 'possessing power' -- [Pokorny tēu-, təu-, teu̯ə-, tu̯ō-, tū̆- :: to swell, intumesce]   -- <tuvam-> 'you' -- [Pokorny tū̆ :: thou, you]   -- <tya-> (corrupt form) 'that' -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <tya-> '(so/in order) that' -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <θakatay-> 'past' -- <θard-> 'autumn, year' -- <θah> 'speak, say, declare' -- <dā> 'put, make, create' -- <dā> 'give, take' -- <dāta-> 'law' -- [Pokorny 1. dhē-, reduplicated dhē-dh(ē)- :: older family member (nursery word)]   -- <dāna-> 'offering' -- <Dārayavahu-> 'Darius' -- <daiva-> 'daiva' -- <dauštar-> 'friend' -- <dar> 'hold, support' -- <dargam> 'long' -- [Pokorny 5. del- :: long]   -- <dars> 'dare' -- <daršam> 'greatly, mightily, steadfastly' -- <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- <di> 'see, look' -- <di-> 'this' -- <dī> 'take, seize' -- <didā-> 'fortress, wall' -- [Pokorny dheig̑h- :: to build, knead clay]   -- <dipi-> 'inscription' -- <diy> (used for emphasis) -- <dūra> 'far' -- <dūraiy> 'afar, far away' -- [Pokorny 3. deu-, deu̯ə-, du̯ā-, dū- :: to pass, move forward]   -- <duruxta-> 'false' -- <duruva-> 'durable, stable, firm, secure' -- [Pokorny deru-, dō̆ru-, dr(e)u-, drou-, dreu̯ə- : drū- :: firm, solid; tree, wood]   -- <duš> 'difficult, bad, evil' -- <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' -- [Pokorny 2. dhreugh- :: to harm, deceive]   -- <draujana-> 'deceitful, follower of the Lie' -- [Pokorny 2. dhreugh- :: to harm, deceive]   -- <drug-> 'lie, deceive' -- <nāθ> 'injure, rend' -- <nāma> 'by name, named, called' -- <naiba-> 'beautiful, pious' -- [Pokorny 2. nei-, neiə-, nī- :: to be moved, excited; to shine]   -- <naiy> 'not' -- [Pokorny 1. nĕ, nē, nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   -- <ni> 'down' -- <Nisāya-> 'Nisaya' -- <nūram> 'now' -- [Pokorny nū̆- :: now]   -- <pā> 'protect' -- <pārsa-> 'Persian' -- <Pārsa-> 'Persia' -- <paiθ> 'inscribe, engrave' -- <Paišiyāuvādā-> 'Paishiyauvada' -- <pat> 'fly, fall' -- <patikara-> 'picture, carved/incised likeness' -- <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' -- [Pokorny po-ti :: against, opposite, toward]   -- <parā> 'forth, forward, beyond' -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <paranam> 'before' -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <paru-> 'much, many' -- [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   -- <paruva-> 'before, previous' -- <paruvam> 'previously, before' -- <partara-> 'battle' -- <parsa-> 'examine, read' -- <pasāva> 'after(wards)' -- <pītar-> 'father' -- <puça-> 'son' -- <fra> 'to, toward, forth' -- <fratama-> 'first, foremost' -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- <framātar-> 'lord, master' -- [Pokorny 3. mē-, m-e-t- :: to measure]   -- <Bāgayādi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October -- <baga-> 'god' -- <bar> 'bear, carry' -- <bartam> 'well-born' -- <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- <bu> 'be, become' -- <būmi-> 'earth' -- [Pokorny bheu-, bheu̯ə-, bhu̯ā-, bhu̯ē- : bhō̆u- : bhū- :: to be, exist; grow, prosper]   -- <brātar-> 'brother' -- [Pokorny bhrā́ter- :: brother, family member]   -- <brazmaniya-> 'reverent' -- <mā> (expresses prohibition) -- [Pokorny 1. mē- :: (prohibitive particle: lest, that not)]   -- <mātar-> 'mother' -- <Māda-> 'Media' -- <māha-> 'month' -- <magu-> 'Magian' -- [Pokorny magh- : māgh- :: to help, be able; might, power]   -- <man> 'think' -- <mar> 'die' -- <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- [Pokorny 4. mer-, merə- :: to die]   -- <Mudrāya-> 'Egypt' -- <yātā> 'until, while, as long as' -- <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' -- <yaθā> 'as, when, because' -- <yad> 'revere, worship' -- <yadā> 'where' -- <yadiy> 'if, when' -- [Pokorny de-, do- :: I-deictic; here]   -- <rādiy> 'on account of' -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <raucah-> 'day' -- [Pokorny leuk- :: to light, shine; see]   -- <ranga-> 'speed, haste' -- <vā> 'or' -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <vaina-> 'see' -- <var> active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince' -- [Pokorny 2. u̯el-, u̯lei-, u̯lē(i)- :: to will, want, wish, choose]   -- <vart> 'turn' -- <vašna-> 'will, favor' -- [Pokorny u̯ek̑- :: to want, wish]   -- <vasiy> 'greatly, utterly' -- <vazraka-> 'great' -- [Pokorny u̯eg̑- :: fresh, strong]   -- <vi> 'wide, apart' -- <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March -- <Vištāspa-> 'Hystaspes' -- <visa-> 'all, every' -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   -- <vispa-> 'all, every' -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   -- <ša-> 'he, this' -- <ši-> 'she, this' -- <šiyāta-> 'happy' -- [Pokorny kei̯ə-, kii̯ē- :: to rest comfortably; quiet, peaceful, tranquil]   -- <šiyati-> 'welfare, peace, happiness' -- [Pokorny kei̯ə-, kii̯ē- :: to rest comfortably; quiet, peaceful, tranquil]   -- <šiyu> 'set out, go' -- <škauri-> 'weak' -- <šta> 'sit, set, place' -- <sa-> 'he, this' -- <Sikayauvati-> 'Sikayauvati' -- <zana-> 'man' -- <zūra-> 'evil' -- <zūrakara-> 'evil-doer' -- <zbā-> 'call' -- <hauv-> 'he, this' -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <haxāmanišiya-> 'Achaemenid' -- [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   -- <hacā> 'from, out of' -- [Pokorny 1. sek- :: to segue, follow]   -- <had> 'sit' -- [Pokorny sed- :: to sit, set, settle]   -- <hadā> 'with, together with' -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <hadugā-> 'record, statute' -- <ham> 'together' -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <hama-> 'same' -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <hamiçiya-> 'rebellious' -- <haruva-> 'all' -- [Pokorny solo-, sol(e)u̯o- :: whole, well-kept, salubrious]   -- <hašiya-> 'true' -- [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   -- <hya-> 'who, what, which' -- [Pokorny so(s), sā :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   --

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