Old Iranian Online

Avestan: Master Glossary

This Master Glossary page lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique word form that appears in lesson texts and, for each word, its unique glosses. In addition to the gloss information, sans contextual translation, links are provided to every appearance, in every numbered lesson, of the word/gloss in question. With this index one may perform a quick "word look-up" and, in addition, study how words are used in context by clicking on their links.


ainīm - noun; accusative singular masculine <anya-> 'other' aipī - preposition; <aipi> 'toward, approaching' aipī-ciθīṯ - adverb; <aipi> 'toward, approaching' + ; <ciθ> indefinite marker aiβi-družinti - verbal prefix; <aiwi> 'toward, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person plural present indicative active <draoga-> 'lie, deceive' aurvaθanąm - noun; genitive plural masculine <aurvaθana-> 'adversary' aurvantəm - adjective; accusative singular masculine <aurvant-> 'swift, runner, steed' aurvō - noun; vocative singular masculine <aurvant-> 'swift, runner, steed' aēibyō - demonstrative pronoun; dative plural <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' aēnaŋhąm - noun; genitive plural neuter <aēnah-> 'sin' aēm - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' aēvā - adjective; nominative singular masculine <aēva-> 'one, alone' aēvā - adjective; instrumental singular masculine <aēva-> 'one, alone' aēšasā - adjective; nominative plural masculine <aēšasa-> 'wild' aēšəmō - noun; nominative singular masculine <aēšəma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' aēšəməm - noun; accusative singular masculine <aēšəma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' aēšąm - demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' aēšma - noun; instrumental singular masculine <aēšma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' aogō - noun; accusative singular neuter <aogah-> 'power, strength' aojan̨ha - noun; instrumental singular masculine <aogah-> 'power, strength' aojištō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <uγra-> 'strong' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative aorā-cā - adverbial prefix; <aorā> 'down' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' akəm-cā - adjective; accusative singular neuter <aka-> 'bad, evil, wicked' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' axvafnəm - privative prefix; <a> 'no, none' + noun; accusative singular masculine <xvafna-> 'sleep, dream' aŋhaitī - verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <ah-> 'be, become' aŋhaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <ah-> 'be, become' aŋhuš - noun; nominative singular masculine <aŋhu-> 'existence, life' acištā - adjective; accusative plural masculine <aka-> 'bad, evil, wicked' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative acištō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <aka-> 'bad, evil, wicked' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative acištəm - adjective; accusative singular neuter <aka-> 'bad, evil, wicked' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative ajyāitīm-cā - noun; accusative singular masculine <ajyaiti-> 'death' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' aṯ - particle; <aṯ> 'then, but, and, so, thus' aṯ-cā - particle; <aṯ> 'then, but, and, so, thus' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' aθā - adverb; <aθā> 'so, thus, likewise' aθra - indeclinable; <aθra> 'here, there' adā - adverb; <adā> 'then, thereupon, thus' advaēšō - compound noun; nominative singular masculine <a-> (privative) + ; <dvaesa-> 'hatred' anaēšəm - adjective; accusative singular masculine <anaēša-> 'powerless' anāiš - demonstrative pronoun; instrumental singular masculine <ana-> 'him' anąsaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular augmented aorist indicative active <nas> 'be lost, disappear' anyē - adjective; nominative plural masculine <anya-> 'other' anyō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <anya-> 'other' anyō - noun; nominative singular masculine <anya-> 'other' apə̄mem - adjective; accusative singular neuter <apə̄məm> 'last' apə̄məm - adverb; <apə̄məm> 'last' abyas-cā - demonstrative pronoun; dative plural feminine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' amavantəm - adjective; accusative singular masculine <amavant-> 'strong, powerful, vigorous' ayaŋhā - noun; instrumental singular neuter <ayah-> 'metal, iron' ayå - demonstrative pronoun; genitive dual masculine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' aršuxδaēibyasca - adjective; <ərəš-> 'right, correct, true' + past participle passive; instrumental singular feminine <vak> 'say, speak, declare' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' arš-vacaŋhəm - adjective; <ərəš-> 'right, correct, true' + noun; accusative singular masculine <vacah-> 'speech, word' a-vaēnatā - preposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' + verb; 2nd person plural present imperative active <vaēna-> 'see, observe, look' avaēšąm - demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural neuter <ava-> 'this, that' avaṯ - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' avarə̄ - adverb; <avar> 'down' avavaṯ - adjective; accusative singular neuter <avant-> 'as much, so much, so long, such' avā - verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' avō - adjective; accusative singular neuter <avah-> 'help, helping' avō-bavaitī - verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive active <bu> 'be, become' avåntəm - adjective; accusative singular masculine <avant-> 'as much, so much, so long, such' asištā - adjective; nominative plural masculine <asišta-> 'fastest' asūrahyā - adjective; genitive singular masculine <asura-> 'weak' asə̄nō - noun; accusative plural masculine <asan-> 'stone, heaven' asti - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <ah-> 'be, become' astū - verb; 3rd person singular present imperative active <ah-> 'be, become' aspanąm - noun; genitive singular masculine <aspa-> 'horse' asrvātəm - verb; 3rd person dual aorist indicative passive <sru> 'hear, listen' aša - noun; instrumental singular neuter <aša-> 'truth' ašaonaēca - noun; dative singular masculine <ašavant-> 'follower of the Truth' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' ašaonaṯ - noun; ablative singular masculine <ašavant-> 'follower of the Truth' ašaonąm - adjective; genitive plural masculine <ašavant-> 'follower of the Truth' ašava-jaciṯ - noun; <ašavant-> 'follower of the Truth' + root noun; <gan-> 'slayer' + indefinite marker; <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense ašavabyō - noun; dative singular masculine <ašavan-> '(in accordance with) Truth' ašavabyō - noun; dative plural masculine <ašavant-> 'follower of the Truth' ašavā - adjective; nominative singular masculine <ašavan-> '(in accordance with) Truth' ašahyā - noun; genitive singular neuter <aša-> 'truth' ašah́yā-cā - noun; genitive singular masculine <aša-> 'truth' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' ašā - noun; instrumental singular neuter <aša-> 'truth' ašāi - noun; dative singular neuter <aša-> 'truth' ašāi-cā - noun; dative singular neuter <aša-> 'truth' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' ašāunī - adjective; nominative singular feminine <ašavan-> '(in accordance with) Truth' ašāunē - noun; dative singular masculine <ašavan-> '(in accordance with) Truth' ašāum - noun; accusative singular feminine <ašavan-> '(in accordance with) Truth' ašā-cā - noun; nominative singular masculine <aša-> 'truth' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' ašā-cā - adjective; instrumental singular neuter <aša-> 'truth' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' ašāṯ - noun; ablative singular neuter <aša-> 'truth' ašāṯ-cīṯ - noun; ablative singular neuter <aša-> 'truth' + emphatic particle; <cīṯ> 'indeed, verily, etc.' ašəm - noun; accusative singular neuter <aša-> 'truth' azəm - personal pronoun; nominative singular <azəm-> 'I' azə̄m-cīṯ - pronoun; 1st person nominative singular <azəm-> 'I' + emphatic particle; <cīṯ> 'indeed, verily, etc.' azyå - adjective; genitive singular feminine <azi-> 'fertile' ahurahe - noun; genitive singular masculine <ahura-> 'lord' ahurā - noun; vocative singular masculine <ahura-> 'lord' ahurāi - noun; dative singular masculine <ahura-> 'lord' ahurō - noun; nominative singular masculine <ahura-> 'lord' ahurəm - noun; accusative singular masculine <ahura-> 'lord' ahuråŋhō - noun; vocative plural masculine <ahura-> 'lord' ahū - noun; nominative singular masculine <ahu-> 'lord' ahūm - noun; accusative singular masculine <aŋhu-> 'existence, life' ahūm - noun; accusative singular neuter <ahu-> 'existence, life, breath' ahe - particle; <ahe> 'indeed, certainly' ahmaṯ - adverb; <ahmaṯ> 'henceforth' ahmāi - demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' ahmāi-cā - demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' ahyā - demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' ahyā - demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' ahvā - noun; instrumental singular feminine <ah> 'energy, zest, zeal' - preposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' - postposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' āaṯ - adverb; <āaṯ> 'then, thereupon, therefore, and, but' āiš - demonstrative pronoun; instrumental singular masculine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' āxva - indeclinable; <aθra> 'here, there' ātarš - noun; nominative singular masculine <ātar-> 'fire' ā-tē - preposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' + enclitic pronoun; <tvə̄m-> 'you' ādānāiš - noun; instrumental plural neuter <ādāna-> 'portion, forging together, retaliation' ā-dəbaomā - preposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' + noun; nominative singular masculine <dəbaoman-> 'beguilement, deception' ādrə̄ng - noun; accusative plural masculine <ādra-> 'lowly' ā-mōyastrā-baranā - preposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' + enclitic pronoun; dative singular <azəm-> 'I' + privative prefix; <a> 'no, none' + adjective; <stra-> 'spread-out' (?) + noun; instrumental singular masculine <barana-> 'carriage, support' āyaptā - noun; accusative plural neuter <āyapta-> 'riches, bounty, boon, spoils' āyesē - verbal prefix; <ā> (conveys sense of reversal with verbs of motion) + verb; 1st person singular present indicative middle <yam> 'offer' ārmaitiš - noun; nominative singular feminine <ārmaiti-> 'devotion, piety' Ārmatōiš - proper name; genitive singular feminine <Armaiti-> name of a goddess = 'righteousness, devotion, piety' āvarənå - noun; accusative dual masculine <āvarəna-> 'invitation, choice' āsu-aspīm - adjective; <āsu-> 'swift' + noun; accusative singular feminine <aspi-> 'mare' āsnąm - adjective; accusative singular feminine <āsna-> 'successful, effective' āzūtōiš - adjective; genitive singular feminine <āzuiti-> 'fat, butter' āžuš - noun; accusative singular neuter <āzhuš-> 'propulsion implement' āhitiš - noun; nominative singular feminine <āhiti-> 'defilement, pollution āhišāyā - preposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' + verb; 3rd person singular perfect indicative active <hišāy-> 'bind, tie up' iθā - adverb; <iθā> 'thus' idā - particle; <idā> 'here' irīraθarə - verb; 3rd person plural perfect indicative active <raēθa-> 'rush upon, mix with' ivīzayathā - verbal prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; 2nd person plural present indicative active <zā> 'abandon, relinquish' išəntō - present participle active; vocative plural masculine <iš> 'strive, desire, arrive' - enclitic demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person accusative plural masculine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' - enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' īm - enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' īratū - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <ar> 'rise' īš - enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' īš - enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' īšā-xšaθrīm - adjective; accusative singular feminine <īšā-xšaθri> 'powerful' īštiš - noun; nominative singular feminine <īšti-> 'sacrifice' uxδā - noun; accusative plural neuter <uxδa-> 'word, saying' uxδāiš - noun; instrumental plural neuter <uxδa-> 'word, saying' uxšyeiti - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative passive <vaxš> 'grow' uta - conjunction; <uta> 'and' utayūitiš - adjective; nominative singular feminine <utayūiti-> 'fresh, lasting, enduring' uparəmcit - adverb; <uparəm> 'above' + indefinite marker; <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense upa-staomi - verbal prefix; <upa> 'near, up on/to, etc.' + verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <stu> 'praise, laud, extol, celebrate' upā - adverbial postposition; <upa> 'near, up on/to, etc.' upā-jasaṯ - verbal prefix; <upa> 'near, up on/to, etc.' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <gam> 'go' upāstaoiti - verbal prefix; <upa> 'near, up on/to, etc.' + verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <stu> 'praise, laud, extol, celebrate' upāzaiti - verbal prefix; <upa> 'near, up on/to, etc.' + verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <zan> 'bear, give birth' urušaēibyō - adjective; dative plural masculine <uruša-> 'emaciated' urūruδuša - perfect active participle; instrumental singular masculine <raod> 'grow, sprout' urvā - noun; nominative singular masculine <urvan-> 'soul, self' urvātā - noun; accusative plural neuter <urvāta-> 'rule, order, commandment' urvāzā - noun; accusative plural neuter <urvāza-> 'joy, bliss' ustānāiš - adjective; instrumental plural masculine <ustana-> 'stretched forth' uštā - past participle passive; accusative plural masculine <vas> 'desire, wish' uštā - verb; 2nd person plural imperfect indicative active <vas> 'desire, wish' ərəš - adverb; <ərəš-> 'right, correct, true' ərəšvåŋhō - noun accusative plural masculine; <ərəšva-> 'lofty' ərəzūš - adjective; accusative plural masculine <erezu-> 'straight, just' ərəžəjyōi - adjective; dative singular masculine <ərəžəji-> 'living justly' ə̄ - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <a-> 'he, this' ə̄əāvā - preposition; <ə̄əāvā> 'down' ə̄nəitī - noun; accusative dual feminine <ə̄nəiti-> 'ill-being, lack of freedom' ə̄hmā-rātōiš - pronoun; compound stem form <azəm-> 'I' + noun; genitive singular masculine <rāta-> 'gift' ąnmā - noun; accusative singular neuter <ąnman-> 'spirit, breath' ąsuš - noun; accusative plural masculine <ahu-> 'existence, life, breath' ås-cā - demonstrative pronoun; genitive dual masculine <a-> 'he, this' kainibyō - noun; dative plural feminine <kainya-> 'maiden, girl' kaēnā - noun; nominative singular feminine <kaēnā-> 'atonement, punishment' kaθā - adverb; <kaθā> 'how, in what way' kadā - adverb; <kadā> 'when' kayaδanąm - noun; genitive plural masculine <kayaδa-> category of evil deed kava-cā - noun; nominative singular masculine <kəvi-> 'title: adherent to the daevic religion' (?) + conjunction; <ca> 'and' kastē - interrogative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <ka-> 'who, what' kahmāi - interrogative pronoun; dative singular masculine <ka-> 'who, what' kudā - adverb; <kudā> 'where' kū - adverb; <ku> 'where' kərədušā - perfect active participle; instrumental singular masculine <(hapax) krd> 'send' (?) kərənaon - verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive active <kar> 'do, make' kəhrpəm - noun; accusative singular feminine <kəhrp-> 'form, body, outward appearance' kəhrpə̄m - noun; accusative singular feminine <kəhrp-> 'form, body, outward appearance' kə̄ - interrogative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <ka-> 'who, what' kə̄m - interrogative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ka-> 'who, what' xraosəntąm - verb; 3rd person plural present imperative middle <xruš> 'scream, howl' xraoždištə̄ng - adjective; accusative plural masculine <xrūždra-> 'hard, firm' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative xraθwā - noun; instrumental singular neuter <xraθwa-> 'power, will, insight' xrūnerąm-cā - adjective; genitive plural masculine <xrūnar-> 'man-defiling' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' xrvīm-drvō - adjective; accusative singular masculine <xrvi-> 'bloody' + noun; genitive singular masculine <drav-> 'wood' xvaētaovē - adjective; dative singular masculine <xvaētu-> 'belonging to the family' xvafnā - noun; instrumental singular masculine <xvafna-> 'sleep, dream' xvareitiš - noun; nominative singular feminine <xvareiti-> 'nourishment' xvarənaŋhaca - noun; instrumental singular masculine <xvarənah-> 'glory' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' xvah́yāi - reflexive pronoun; dative singular feminine <xva-> 'self' xvāθrəm - noun; accusative singular neuter <xvathra-> 'good breathing, ease, comfort' xvādaēnāṯ - prefix; <xva> 'good, worthy' + noun; ablative singular masculine <daēnā-> 'attitude, intention, insight' xvāparąm - prefix; <hu> 'well, good, beautiful' + adverb; <param> 'far, away, opposite, across' xvāpå - adjective; nominative singular masculine <xvapah-> 'dream-like' xvīti-cā - noun; accusative dual feminine <xviti-> 'well-being, freedom of movement' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' xvə̄nvaṯ - noun; stem <hvar-> 'sun' + possessive suffix; <-vat-> '...' xšaθrā - noun; instrumental singular neuter <xšaθra-> 'power' xšaθrəm - noun; accusative singular neuter <xšaθra-> 'power' xšaθrəm-cā - noun; accusative singular neuter <xšaθra-> 'power' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' xšaθrəm-cā - noun; nominative singular neuter <xšaθra-> 'power' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' xšanmə̄nē - infinitive; dative <xšam> 'accept' xšayantō - present participle active; nominative plural masculine <xšaya> 'ruling' xšnaošən - verb; 3rd person plural s-aorist indicative active <xsnu> 'satisfy' xšnə̄m - noun; accusative singular feminine <xšnā-> 'recognition' (?) xšmaibyā - pronoun; dative plural masculine <yūžəm-> 'you' xšmaibyā-cā - personal pronoun; dative plural <yūžəm-> 'you' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' xšmaṯ - pronoun; ablative singular <yūžəm-> 'you' xšvīdəm-cā - noun; accusative singular masculine <xšvid-> 'milk' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' gairinąm - noun; genitive plural masculine <gairi-> 'mountain' gaēm-cā - noun; accusative singular masculine <gaya-> 'life' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' gaodāyō - compound adjective; accusative singular neuter <gao-> 'cow' + ; <dā-> 'give, put' gaoma - adjective; nominative singular masculine <gaoman-> 'possessed of milk' gara - noun; locative singular masculine <gairi-> 'mountain' garayō - noun; accusative plural masculine <gairi-> 'mountain' gava - noun; instrumental singular feminine <gao-> 'cow' gavōi - noun; dative singular feminine <gao-> 'cow' gūšatā - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <guš> 'hear' gərəždā - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <gərəz-> 'lament, complain' gə̄uš - noun; genitive singular feminine <gao-> 'cow' gə̄uš-aiš - noun; instrumental plural masculine <gə̄uša-> 'ear' gə̄uš-cā - noun; genitive singular feminine <gao-> 'cow' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' carānəm - noun; accusative singular neuter <carana-> 'moving, feet, support' carəkərəθrā - noun; accusative plural neuter <carəkərəθra-> '(hymns of) praise' ciθrəm - adjective; accusative singular neuter <ciθrəm> 'manifest, clear, visible, plain' cistiš - noun; nominative singular feminine <cisti-> 'knowledge, thought' jaiδyantō - present participle passive; nominative plural masculine <gad> 'ask, entreat, supplicate' jaγaurvåŋhəm - perfect participle; accusative singular masculine <gar> 'be awake' janyå - verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <jan> 'smite, slay, destroy' jamaitī - verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive active <gam> 'go' jasaētəm - verb; 3rd person dual imperfect indicative middle <gam> 'go' jasaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <gam> 'go' jimā - verb; 1st person singular aorist subjunctive active <gam> 'go' jə̄nayō - noun; vocative plural feminine <jə̄naya-> 'woman' jə̄nerąm - adjective; genitive plural masculine <jə̄nar-> 'man-killing' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' jyātə̄uš - noun; genitive singular masculine <jyātu-> 'life' ṯbišyantąm - present participle passive; genitive plural masculine <ṯbiš> 'hate, despise' taibyō - demonstrative pronoun; dative singular <tvə̄m-> 'you' taibyō - demonstrative pronoun; dative plural masculine <tvə̄m-> 'you' taṯ - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <ta-> 'he, that, this' taṯ - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <ta-> 'he, that, this' tatašaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <tas> 'carve, create, fashion, shape' tatašā - verb; 3rd person singular perfect indicative active <tas> 'carve, create, fashion, shape' tanubyō - noun; dative plural neuter <tanu-> 'body' tanuyē - noun; dative singular masculine <tanu-> 'body' tanvō - noun; genitive singular feminine <tanu-> 'body' tavā - personal pronoun; genitive singular <yūžəm-> 'you' tašaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative active <tas> 'carve, create, fashion, shape' tašā - noun; nominative singular masculine <tašar-> 'carver, fashioner, shaper, creator' tā - demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter <ha-> '(s)he, this' tā - pronoun; nominative dual masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' tāiš - demonstrative pronoun; instrumental plural masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' tū - emphatic particle; <tū> '...' tē - enclitic pronoun; genitive singular <tvə̄m-> 'you' tōi - demonstrative pronoun; dative singular <ta-> 'he, that, this' tōi - personal pronoun; dative singular <tvə̄m-> 'you' tōi - pronoun; nominative plural masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' tōi - pronoun; genitive singular masculine <ha-> 'you' təm - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' təviš-cā - noun; nominative singular neuter <təvis-> 'violence' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' tə̄m - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' tə̄m - personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' tə̄m-cā - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' θwaxšō - noun; accusative singular neuter <θwaxša-> 'zeal, care, nurture' θwarōždūm - verb; 2nd person plural s-aorist indicative middle <θwarōz> 'carve, fashion, shape, create' θwā - possessive pronoun; instrumental singular masculine <θwa> 'you' θwā - personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine <tvə̄m-> 'you' θwā - enclitic pronoun; 2nd person accusative singular <θwa> 'you' θwōrəštā - noun; nominative singular masculine <θwōrəšṯar> 'Fashioner' θwąm - pronoun; 2nd person accusative singular <θwa> 'you' daiŋ́haom - noun; accusative singular feminine <dahyav-> 'country, region, realm' daēnayāi - noun; dative singular feminine <daēnā-> 'attitude, intention, insight' daēnayå - noun; genitive singular feminine <daēnā-> 'attitude, intention, insight' daēnābīš - noun; instrumental plural feminine <daēnā-> 'attitude, intention, insight' daēnąm - noun; accusative singular feminine <daēnā-> 'attitude, intention, insight' daēvanąm - noun; genitive plural masculine <daēva-> 'divine being' daēvāiš-cā - noun; instrumental plural masculine <daēva-> 'divine being' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' daēvā-cinā - noun; nominative plural masculine <daēva-> 'divine being' + indefinite particle; <cinā> '...' daŋhaŋha - adjective; instrumental singular masculine <dan̨hah-> 'skillful' dadāṯ - verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative active <dā-> 'give, put' dadāṯ - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <dā-> 'give, put' dadātū - verb; 3rd person singular present imperative active <dā-> 'give, put' dadən - verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive active <dā-> 'give, put' daδāiti - verb; 3rd person plural present indicative active <dā-> 'give, put' daδāiti - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <dā-> 'give, put' daδąm - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <dā-> 'give, put' dafšnyā - adjective; nominative plural masculine <dafšnya-> 'powerless' dabən - verb; 3rd person plural aorist indicative active <dab> 'fit together' (?) darəgə̄m - adjective; accusative singular neuter <darəga-> 'long' darəsatā - noun; accusative plural neuter <darəsata-> 'visible, beautiful to see' dazdūm - verb; 2nd person plural present imperative middle <dā-> 'give, put' dazdē - verb; 3rd person dual imperfect indicative middle <dā-> 'give, put' dāṯ - verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative active <dā-> 'give, put' dāṯ - verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive active <dā-> 'give, put' dātā - verb; 2nd person plural aorist indicative middle <dā-> 'give, put' dātā - verb; 2nd person plural aorist imperative active <dā-> 'give, put' dāmiδātəm - noun; <dāmi-> 'creation' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <dā-> 'give, put' dāmōhu - noun; locative plural neuter <dāman-> 'dwelling, creation, creatures (pl.)' dāyāṯ - verb; 3rd person singular aorist optative active <dā-> 'give, put' dāhī - verb; 2nd person singular aorist subjunctive active <dā-> 'give, put' dim - personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' dugədrąm - noun; genitive plural feminine <dugədar-> 'daughter' duš-xvarəthə̄m - compound noun; accusative singular neuter <duš-> 'bad, evil' + ; <xvarətha-> 'food' dušmainyunąm - prefix; <duš-> 'bad, evil' + noun; genitive plural masculine <mainyu-> 'spirit' duždåŋhō - adjective; nominative plural neuter <duždā-> 'of bad gifts, maleficent' dužvarənāiš - noun; instrumental plural masculine <dužvarena-> 'choosing badly' dužvarəšnaŋhō - noun; nominative plural masculine <dužvarešnah-> 'wrong-doers' dərəš-cā - noun; nominative singular feminine <darəs-> 'wantoness, rage, fury' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' dərəzā - noun; instrumental singular feminine <dərəz-> 'shackle' də̄jīṯ-arətaēibyō - compound noun; dative plural masculine <dəjit-> 'violation' (?) + noun; <aša-> 'truth' də̄jīṯ-arətā - compound noun; nominative plural masculine <dəjit-> 'violation' (?) + noun; <aša-> 'truth' dåŋhō - noun; genitive singular neuter <dah-> 'gift' dyāi - verb; 1st person singular present subjunctive passive <dā-> 'give, put' drujim - noun; accusative singular masculine <druj-> 'deceit' drūjō - noun; ablative singular feminine <druj-> 'deceit' drəgaovē - noun; dative singular masculine <drigu-> 'needy, poor' drəgvatō - present participle active; genitive singular masculine <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' drəgvatąm - adjective; genitive plural masculine <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' drəgvasū - noun; locative plural masculine <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' drəgvōdəbīš - noun; instrumental plural masculine <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' drəgvō-dəbyō - adjective; dative plural masculine <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' drəgvōdəbyō - noun; dative plural masculine <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' drəgvå - adjective; nominative dual masculine <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' drvataēca - noun; dative singular masculine <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' drvataṯ - noun; ablative singular masculine <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' drvatātəm - noun; accusative singular feminine <drvatāt-> 'health, vitality' dvaidī - verb; 1st person dual aorist indicative middle <dā-> 'give, put' dvafšō - noun; nominative singular masculine <dvafša-> 'distress, ruin, pain, anguish' naēdā - negative particle; <naēda> 'not, nor' narō - noun; vocative plural masculine <nar-> 'man' narəpīš - noun; nominative singular neuter <narəpi-> 'reduction, absence' narəm - noun; accusative singular masculine <nar-> 'man' narə̄m - noun; accusative singular masculine <nar-> 'man' narš - noun; nominative singular masculine <nar-> 'man' nasyeiti - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <nas> 'be lost, disappear' nā - enclitic personal pronoun; instrumental singular masculine <azəm-> 'I' niγne - verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 1st person singular present indicative middle <gan> 'smite, strike' nitəmacit - adjective; <nitəma-> 'lowest' + indefinite marker; <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense nidaθaṯ - verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <dā-> 'give, put' nivarānī - preposition; <nī> '...' + verb; 1st person singular present subjunctive active <var> 'choose' nū - adverb; <nū> 'now' nōiṯ - negative particle; <nōiṯ> 'no, none' nəmaŋhaca - noun; instrumental singular neuter <naman-> 'reverence' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' nərəš - noun; genitive singular masculine <nar-> 'man' nə̄ - enclitic pronoun; 1st person genitive plural <azəm-> 'I' nə̄ - enclitic pronoun; 1st person dative plural <azəm-> 'I' nə̄ - enclitic pronoun; dative plural masculine <azəm-> 'I' nə̄ - enclitic pronoun; 2nd person accusative plural <vaēm-> 'we' nąsaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative active <ans> 'attain' + 3rd person singular aorist indicative active; <nas> 'be lost, disappear' nå - enclitic pronoun; 1st person dative singular <azəm-> 'I' nmānāṯ - noun; ablative singular neuter <nmāna-> 'abode, house' paiti - postposition; <paiti> 'near, toward, with respect to' paiti - preposition; <paiti> 'near, toward, with respect to' paiti-jaitīm - preposition; <paiti> 'near, toward, with respect to' + active noun; accusative singular feminine <jaiti-> 'going' paitī-mravaṯ - verbal prefix; <paiti> 'near, toward, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <mrū> 'speak, say' paitī-zānatā - verbal prefix; <paiti> 'near, toward, with respect to' + verb; 2nd person plural present imperative active <xšnā> 'know' paityāstīm - noun; accusative singular feminine <paityāstī-> 'firm foundation' paiθyaē-cā - noun; dative singular masculine <paiti-> 'husband, master' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' pairi-jasāi - verbal prefix; <pairi> 'around, among' + verb; 1st person singular present subjunctive middle <gam> 'go' pairī - postposition; <pairi> 'around, among' pairī-ciθīṯ - adverb; <pairi> 'around, among' + ; <ciθ> indefinite marker paurvatāxva - noun; accusative plural neuter (?) <paurvat-> 'mountain' + demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter (?) <hva-> 'this' paouruyē - adjective; nominative dual masculine <paouruya-> 'first, original' paouruyō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <paouruya-> 'first, original' paourvīm - adverb; <paouruya-> 'first, original' paourvīm - adjective; accusative singular masculine <paouruya-> 'first, original' paθanąm - adjective; accusative singular feminine <paθana-> 'spacious' paθō - noun; accusative plural masculine <paθ-> 'path, road' pantąm - noun; accusative singular feminine <paθ-> 'path, road' para-cā - adverbial prefix; <parā> 'before, beyond, away' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' parā - preposition; <parā> 'before, beyond, away' parā - adverb; <parā> 'before, beyond, away' piθā - noun; accusative plural neuter <piθa-> 'defense' Pourucistā - proper name; vocative singular feminine <Pourucistā-> 'Pouruchista' (?) pouru-sareδō - adjective; <pouru-> 'many' + noun; nominative singular masculine <sareδa-> 'kind, sort, species' pouru-spaxštīm - adjective; <pouru-> 'wide' + noun; accusative singular feminine <spaxšti-> 'vision' pərəθu-vaēδayanəm - adjective; <pərəθu-> 'wide, broad' + noun; accusative singular masculine <vaēδayana-> 'attainment, discovery, acquisition' pərəθvīm - adjective; accusative singular feminine <pərəθu-> 'wide, broad' pərəsaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <pərəs-> 'ask' pərəsåŋhe - verb; 2nd person singular s-aorist subjunctive middle <fras> 'inquire, discuss' pərəsmanəng - present participle middle; accusative plural masculine <pərəs-> 'ask' pəšō-tanvō - compound noun; nominative plural masculine <peša-> 'brought to an end' + ; <tanu-> 'body' feδrōi - noun; dative singular masculine <pitar-> 'father' ferašvā - verb; 2nd person singular s-aorist imperative middle <fras> 'inquire, discuss' Fərašaoštras-cā - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Ferašaoštra-> 'Frashaostra' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' fərašə̄m - adjective; accusative singular masculine <fəraša-> 'shining' fraorəṯ - adverb; <fraorəṯ> 'readily' frajyāitiš - noun; nominative singular masculine <frajyāiṯi> 'life's possibility' fratarəmcit - adverb; <fratarəm> 'opposite' + indefinite marker; <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense fradaxšta - adjective; nominative plural masculine <fradaxštā-> 'guiding, instructive' fravašayō - noun; nominative plural feminine <fravaši-> the immortal element in a person, personified as a class of deity fravāxšē - noun; locative singular masculine <fravāxš-> 'stalk, branch, penis' frasåbyō - noun; dative plural feminine <frasā-> 'question, inquiry' frasparəγē - noun; locative singular masculine <frasparak-> 'sprout' frazaintīm - noun; accusative singular feminine <frazanti-> 'progeny, offspring' frāidīm - noun; accusative singular masculine <frāidi-> 'growth, prosperity' frākərəsta - verbal prefix; <fra> 'forward, toward' + past participle passive; instrumental singular masculine <kar> 'do, make' frāxšnənē - noun; locative singular masculine <frāxšnəna-> 'concern' frādaδąm - verbal prefix; <fra> 'forward, toward' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <dā-> 'give, put' frīnəmnā - present participle middle; nominative dual masculine <frī> 'devote' fšuyantaē-cā - present participle active; dative singular masculine <fsuya-> 'breed (esp. cattle)' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' fšuyentē - present participle active; dative singular masculine <fsuya-> 'breed (esp. cattle)' baēvarə-cašmanəm - adjective; <baēvara-> 'ten-thousand' + noun; accusative singular masculine <cašman-> 'eye' baēšaza - noun; accusative plural neuter <baēšaza-> 'remedy, poison' baēšazəm - noun; accusative singular neuter <baēšaza-> 'remedy, poison' baēšazyehe - adjective; genitive singular masculine <baēšazya-> 'generative, curative' baodantō - present participle active; nominative plural masculine <bud> 'be attentive, aware' baγō - noun; nominative singular masculine <baγa-> 'god, deity' barəθrīm - noun; accusative singular feminine <barəθri-> 'mother, womb' barəsmana - noun; instrumental singular neuter <barəsman-> grass bundle used in the Indo-Iranian sacrifice barəšaēšu - noun; locative singular plural <barəša-> 'neck, back' barəzayå - adjective; genitive singular feminine <barəz> 'high, exalted, loud' baršnuš - noun; accusative plural masculine <baršnu-> 'high point, peak' bavaiti - verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <bu> 'be, become' bavaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive active <bu> 'be, become' bāδa - adverb; <bāδa> 'true, reliable' būnōi - noun; locative singular masculine <būna-> 'ground, base' bərəzantō - present participle active; accusative plural masculine <bərəz-> 'be high, elevated' bərəzantəm - noun; accusative singular masculine <bərəzant-> 'high, elevated, lofty, big, great, clear' bąnayən - verb; 3rd person plural present injunctive active <banaya-> 'poison, make ill' maiδyån̨hō - adjective; nominative plural masculine <maiδyah-> 'madness-inducing' mainivå - noun; genitive dual masculine <mainyu-> 'spirit' mainyuš - noun; nominative singular masculine <mainyu-> 'spirit' mainyū - noun; nominative dual masculine <mainyu-> 'spirit' mairištō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <mairišṯa-> 'knowing/remembering best' mairyō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <mairya-> 'false, malicious' maēγəmca - noun; accusative singular masculine <maēγa-> 'cloud' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' maēθā - adjective; nominative singular feminine <maēδa-> 'changing, false' magahyā - noun; genitive singular masculine <maga-> 'gift' magāi-ā - noun; dative singular masculine <maga-> 'gift' + preposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' magə̄m - noun; accusative singular masculine <maga-> 'gift' maδō - noun; nominative singular masculine <maδa-> 'intoxication' mana - personal pronoun; instrumental singular masculine <azəm-> 'I' manaŋhā - noun; instrumental singular neuter <manah-> 'mind' manaŋhā - noun; instrumental singular masculine <manah-> 'mind' manaŋhō - noun; genitive singular neuter <manah-> 'mind' manaŋhō - noun; genitive singular masculine <manah-> 'mind' manahi-cā - noun; locative singular neuter <manah-> 'mind' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' manahīm - adjective; accusative singular neuter <manahya-> 'spiritual' manō - noun; nominative singular neuter <manah-> 'mind' manō - noun; accusative singular neuter <manah-> 'mind' manå - noun; nominative plural neuter <manah-> 'mind' marətaēibyō - noun; dative plural masculine <marəta-> 'mortal' marətānō - noun; genitive singular masculine <marəta-> 'mortal' mašā - noun; instrumental singular masculine <mašya-> 'human being' mašyāiš-cā - noun; instrumental plural masculine <mašya-> 'human being' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' mašyåŋhō - noun; vocative plural masculine <mašya-> 'human being' mazištō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <maz-> 'large, great' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative mazōi - adjective; dative singular masculine <maz-> 'large, great' mazə̄ - adjective; genitive singular neuter <maz-> 'large, great' mazdā - adjective; vocative singular masculine <mazdā-> 'wise' mazdā - noun; vocative singular masculine <mazda-> 'wise one' mazdāθā - noun; accusative plural neuter <mazdāδa-> 'thing to be considered' mazdąm - noun; accusative singular masculine <mazda-> 'wise one' mazdå - noun; genitive singular masculine <mazda-> 'wise one' mazdå - adjective; nominative singular masculine <mazdā-> 'wise' mazdå - noun; nominative singular masculine <mazda-> 'wise one' mazdås-cā - noun; genitive singular masculine <mazda-> 'wise one' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' mazdås-cā - noun; vocative plural masculine <mazda-> 'wise one' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' mā - enclitic pronoun; 1st person accusative singular <azəm-> 'I' mā - prohibitive participle; <mā> used to express prohibition Miθrō - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Miθra-> 'Mithra' miθrō - noun; nominative singular masculine <miθra-> 'contract, agreement, pact' miθrō-druxš - noun; <miθra-> 'contract, agreement, pact' + adjective; nominative singular masculine <drug-> 'false' miθrəm - noun; accusative singular masculine <miθra-> 'contract, agreement, pact' Miθrəm - proper name; accusative singular masculine <Miθra-> 'Mithra' mīždəm - noun; accusative singular neuter <mīzda-> 'wages, prize' mošu-cā - adverb; <mošu> 'soon' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' mōi - enclitic pronoun; 1st person dative singular <azəm-> 'I' mərəiθyaoš - noun; genitive singular masculine <mərəthyu-> 'death' mərəγa - noun; nominative plural masculine <mərəγa-> 'forest animal, bird' mərəngəduyē - verb; 2nd person plural present subjunctive middle <mrc> 'destroy' mərəncaite - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <marək-> 'kill, destroy, bring ruin' mə̄ - adjective pronoun; nominative singular masculine <ma-> 'my' mə̄ŋ́hī - verb; 1st person singular aorist indicative middle <man> 'know, think' mə̄n-cā - abbreviated noun (?); accusative singular masculine <manah-> 'mind' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' mə̄m-bə̄əduš - compound stem (?); accusative singular neuter <manah-> 'mind' + perfect participle; accusative singular neuter <band-> 'shine' (?) mąθraca - noun; instrumental singular masculine <mąθra-> 'formulaic verse, spell, poetic intention' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' mąθrəm - noun accusative singular masculine; <maθra-> 'mantra, magic formula' mąmciṯ - personal pronoun; accusative singular <azəm-> 'I' + indefinite marker; <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense mąz - abbreviated noun (?); accusative singular masculine (?) <manah-> 'mind' mraocąs - present participle active; nominative singular masculine <mru> 'drive, plunge, beat' mraoṯ - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <mrū> 'speak, say' mraomī - verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <mrū> 'speak, say' yaē-cā - relative pronoun; dative plural masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' yaē-cā - relative pronoun; nominative plural <ya-> 'who, what, which' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' yaojantē - verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive middle <yuj> 'join, unite, yoke' yaṯ - adverb; <yaṯ> 'when' yaθa - conjunction; <yaθa> 'just as, like' yaθā - adverb; <yaθa> 'just as, like' yaθā-cā - adverb; <yaθa> 'just as, like' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' yaθra - conjunction; <yaθra> 'where, in order to' yaθra - adverb; <yaθra> 'where, in order to' yaθrā - adverb; <yaθra> 'where, in order to' yadā - relative adverb; <yadā> 'when' yavaṯ - adverb; <yavaṯ> 'how long, as long as' yavā - adjective; instrumental singular masculine <yavan-> 'during life' yavōi - noun; dative singular neuter <yav-> 'duration, period, time of life' yasna - noun; accusative singular masculine <yasna-> 'sacrifice, offering, hymn' yasnąs-cā - noun; accusative plural masculine <yasna-> 'sacrifice, offering, hymn' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' yazatəm - future participle passive; accusative singular masculine <yaz> 'sacrifice, offer' yazamaide - verb; 1st person plural present indicative middle <yaz> 'sacrifice, offer' yazāi - verb; 1st person singular present subjunctive middle <yaz> 'sacrifice, offer' yazənte - verb; 3rd person plural present indicative middle <yaz> 'sacrifice, offer' yahmāi - relative pronoun; dative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yahmi - relative pronoun; locative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yā - relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yā - relative pronoun; instrumental singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yā - relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter <ya-> 'who, what, which' yā - relative pronoun; nominative dual masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yā - relative pronoun; nominative accusative masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yā - relative pronoun; nominative plural neuter <ya-> 'who, what, which' yā - relative pronoun; instrumental singular neuter <ya-> 'who, what, which' yā-cā - relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' yā-tē - relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' + enclitic pronoun; genitive singular <tvə̄m-> 'you' yim - relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yūšmāvatąm - pronoun; genitive plural masculine <yūžəm-> 'you' + possessive suffix; <vat-> 'like' yūžə̄m - pronoun; 2nd person nominative singular <yūžəm-> 'you' ye-cā - dative ending; plural masculine <-aya> '...' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' yesnyata - adjective; accusative singular masculine <yesnya-> 'sacrifice, worship' yesnyā-cā - noun; accusative plural masculine <yesnya-> 'sacrifice, worship' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' yezivī - adjective; vocative singular feminine <yazu-> 'youngest' yezī - conjunction; <yezī> 'as, because, when' yō - relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yōi - relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yōi - relative pronoun; dative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yə̄ - relative pronoun; nominative singular <ya-> 'who, what, which' yə̄ - relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yə̄m - relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yə̄mā - noun; nominative dual masculine <yə̄ma-> 'twin' yə̄mə - relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yąm - relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ya-> 'who, what, which' yåŋhō - noun; genitive singular neuter <yāh-> 'pilgrimage, retribution' raocə̄bīs - noun; instrumental plural neuter <raocah-> 'light' raoδahe - verb; 2nd person singular present indicative middle <raod> 'grow, sprout' raose - verb; 2nd person singular aorist subjunctive middle <raod> 'grow, sprout' raostā - verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative middle <rud> 'howl, cry out, lament' rajīš - noun; nominative singular neuter <rajī-> 'darkness' ratuš - noun; nominative singular masculine <ratu-> 'judgement, model, plan' raθaēštārō - noun; <raθa-> 'chariot' + agent root noun; <stā> 'stand, stay, remain' raya - noun; instrumental singular masculine <rai-> 'radiance, wealth, splendor' rašō - noun; accusative singular neuter <rašah-> 'harm, damage' razištəm - adjective; accusative singular masculine <ərəzu-> 'straight' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative rāthəmō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <rāthəma-> 'adhering to' rādəm - noun; accusative singular masculine <rāda-> 'provider' rāmąm-cā - noun; accusative singular neuter <rāman-> 'peace, tranquility' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' rāmąm-cā - noun; accusative plural masculine <rāman-> 'peace, tranquility' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' rāstī - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <rāθ> 'adhere' rəmō - noun; nominative singular masculine <rəma-> 'bloodlust, violence, chains' vaēdōdūm - verb; 2nd person plural present imperative middle <vid> 'see, know, obtain' vaēdəm - noun; accusative singular masculine <vaēda-> 'provider' vaēm - personal pronoun; nominative singular <azəm-> 'I' vaēšō - noun; nominative singular neuter <vaēšah-> 'poison' vaocaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative active <vak> 'say, speak, declare' vaxəδrahyā - noun; genitive singular neuter <vaxəδra-> 'speech organ' vaxšayatō - present participle active; accusative plural masculine <vaxšaya-> 'cause to grow' vaxšyā - verb; 1st person singular future indicative active <vak> 'say, speak, declare' vaŋuhīš - adjective; nominative plural feminine <vohu-> 'good' vaŋhāu - adjective; locative singular neuter <vohu-> 'good' vaŋhuyāi - adjective; dative singular neuter <vohu-> 'good' vaŋhuyå - adjective; genitive singular feminine <vohu-> 'good' vaŋhēuš - adjective; genitive singular masculine <vohu-> 'good' vaŋhə̄uš - adjective; genitive singular neuter <vohu-> 'good' vaca - noun; instrumental singular masculine <vacah-> 'speech, word' vacaca - noun; instrumental singular masculine <vacah-> 'speech, word' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' vacahi-cā - noun; locative singular neuter <vacah-> 'speech, word' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' vacō - noun; accusative singular neuter <vacah-> 'speech, word' vadəmnō - noun; genitive singular masculine <vadman-> (?) 'possessed of speech' vantaca - noun; instrumental singular masculine <vanta-> 'praise, homage' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' vafūš - noun; accusative plural masculine <vafu-> 'prophecy, teaching, solemn words' vayū-bərədubyō - compound noun; dative plural masculine <vayu-> 'air, wind' (?) + verb; <bərət> 'cry' (?) vayōi - interjection; <vayoi> 'woe' vayå - adjective; ablative dual masculine <uvaya-> 'both' varatā - verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative middle <var> 'choose' vareδayan̨uha - verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <vərəz> 'do, make, perform' varəšaitē - verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive active <vərəz> 'do, make, perform' varšajīš - noun; locative singular masculine <varšak-> 'root, tree' vasaṯ - verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <vas> 'desire, wish' vasəmī - verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <vas> 'desire, wish' vasə̄-itōiš-cā - noun; genitive singular feminine <vasəiti-> 'liberty, prosperity' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' vastē - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <vas> 'be clothed, swathed' vaštī - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <vas> 'desire, wish' vazyamnābyō - present participle middle; dative plural feminine <vaz> 'marry' vahištā - adjective; accusative singular neuter <vohu-> 'good' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative vahištā - adjective; nominative singular feminine <vohu-> 'good' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative vahištəm - adjective; accusative singular neuter <vohu-> 'good' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative vahmāi-ā - noun; dative singular masculine <vahma-> 'glorification, praise' + adverbial postposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' vahmyata - adjective; accusative singular masculine <vahmaya-> 'worthy of praise' vahyō - adjective; accusative singular neuter <vahya-> 'better' vā - emphatic particle; <vā> 'indeed, for, etc.' vāγžibyō - noun; instrumental plural feminine <vacah-> 'speech, word' vācim - noun; accusative singular feminine <vāc-> 'voice' vādāyōiṯ - verb; 3rd person singular present optative active <vādāya-> 'destroy' vārəmca - noun; accusative singular masculine <vāra-> 'rain' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' vāvərəzōi - verb 3rd person singular perfect indicative middle; <vərəz> 'do, make, perform' vāstā - noun; nominative singular masculine <vāstar-> 'herdsman' vāstrā - noun; instrumental singular masculine <vāstrya-> 'herdsman; pasture' vāstryaēibyō - noun; dative plural masculine <vāstrya-> 'herdsman; pasture' vāstryā - noun; accusative plural neuter <vāstrya-> 'herdsman; pasture' vāstryāi-cā - noun; dative singular masculine <vāstrya-> 'herdsman; pasture' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' vistō - past participle passive; nominative singular masculine <vis> 'find' vīciθahyā - noun; genitive singular neuter <vīciδa-> 'decision, judgement' vīcirō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <vīcira-> 'discerning' vīdāṯ - verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive active <vid> 'see, know, obtain' vīduyē - infinitive; dative singular <vid> 'see, know, obtain' vīdušē - present participle active; dative singular masculine <vid> 'see, know, obtain' vīdvå - perfect active participle; nominative singular masculine <vid> 'see, know, obtain' vībarən - verbal prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative <bar> 'bear, carry' vīraoδahe - verbal prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; 2nd person singular present indicative middle <raod> 'grow, sprout' vīvə̄nghatū - verb; 2nd person singular present imperative active desiderative <van> 'surpass, overcome' vīspāi-ā - adjective; dative singular neuter <vīspa-> 'all, every' + postposition; <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' vīspe - adjective; nominative plural masculine <vīspa-> 'all, every' vīspēsca - adjective; locative singular masculine <vīspa-> 'all, every' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' vīspąm - adjective; accusative singular feminine <vīspa-> 'all, every' vīspåŋhō - nominative plural masculine; <vispa-> 'everyone/thing, all' Vīštāspō - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Vīštāspa-> 'Vishtaspa' vīšyātā - prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; 3rd person plural aorist indicative active <ci> 'discriminate, tell apart' vīšyātā - verb; 3rd person plural aorist indicative active <vi> 'wide, apart' + ; <ci> 'discriminate, tell apart' vīzxvanca - adverb; <vīzxvanca> 'in every direction' (?) vīžibyō - noun; dative plural feminine <viž-> 'clan' vouru-gaoyaoitiš - adjective; <varav-> 'wide, broad' + noun; <gao-> 'cow' + noun; nominative singular masculine <yaoti-> 'pasture' vouru-gaoyaoitīm - adjective; <varav-> 'wide, broad' + noun; <gao-> 'cow' + noun; accusative singular masculine <yaoti-> 'pasture' vohu-cā - adjective; nominative singular neuter <vohu-> 'good' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' vohū - adjective; accusative plural neuter <vohu-> 'good' vohū - adjective; instrumental singular neuter <vohu-> 'good' vōi-vīdaitī - verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive active intensive <vid> 'see, know, obtain' vərəθrająstarō - noun; <vərəθra-> 'attack, victory' + root noun; <gan-> 'slayer' + comparative suffix; nominative singular masculine <-tara-> 'more, better' vərənātā - verb; 3rd person plural present injunctive middle <vərən-> 'choose' vərəzyan̨xvąm - adjective; accusative singular feminine <vərəzyah-> 'working, productive' vərəzyō - infinitive; <verəz-> 'perform an action' və̄ - enclitic personal pronoun; dative plural <yūžəm-> 'you' və̄ - enclitic personal pronoun; genitive masculine <yūžəm-> 'you' və̄ - enclitic personal pronoun; dative plural masculine <yūžəm-> 'you' vyāxanəm - adjective; accusative singular masculine <vaȳxana-> 'assembly-speaking, rhetorically skilled' vyānayā - noun; instrumental singular feminine <vyāna-> 'insight, perception' saošyantō - noun; ablative singular masculine <saošyant-> 'giving power; savior (?)' saxvārə̄ - noun; accusative plural neuter <saxvār-> 'invocation, poetically formulated vow' satəm - adjective; accusative singular masculine <sata-> 'hundred' sarəjā - compound noun; nominative singular masculine <sar-> 'protection, alliance' + ; <jan> 'smite, slay, destroy' sarəm - noun; accusative singular feminine <sar-> 'protection, alliance' sava-cā - noun; accusative plural neuter <sava-> 'benefit, salvation' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' sastē - infinitive; <saŋh> 'announce, proclaim' sašaθā - verb; 2nd person plural present indicative active <sac> 'learn, understand' saškən-cā - verb; 3rd person plural aorist indicative active <sac> 'learn, understand' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' sazdyāi - verb; infinitive <saŋh> 'announce, proclaim' sāxvə̄nī - noun; accusative plural neuter <sāxvan-> 'doctrine, teaching, instruction' sāsnayā - noun; instrumental singular feminine <sāsnā-> 'teaching' sāsnå - noun; accusative plural feminine <sāsnā-> 'teaching' surunvata - future participle passive; accusative singular masculine <sru> 'hear, listen' sūcā - adjective; instrumental singular neuter <sūca-> 'light, pure, clear' sūrəm - adjective; accusative singular masculine <sūra-> 'strong, powerful' sūrå - adjective; nominative plural feminine <sūra-> 'strong, powerful' səvištəm - adjective; <sūra-> 'strong, powerful' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative sąstā - verb; 2nd person plural s-aorist imperative active <sand> 'show, seem' skəndō - noun; nominative singular masculine <skənda-> 'destruction' scantū - verb; 3rd person plural present imperative active <haca-> 'follow, accompany' (?) staoiti - verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <stu> 'praise, laud, extol, celebrate' staotā-cā - noun; nominative plural masculine <staota-> 'hymn, song of praise' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' staomi - verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <stu> 'praise, laud, extol, celebrate' stavanō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <stavana-> 'praising, being praised' stūitiš - noun; nominative singular feminine <stūiti-> 'song of praise, prayer' spayaθrahyā - noun; genitive singular neuter <spayaθra-> 'atonement, prosperity' spašuθā - verb; 2nd person plural present indicative active <spas-̨ spašu-> (?) 'perceive' Spitama - proper name; vocative singular masculine <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) Spitamāi - proper name; dative singular masculine <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) Spitāmahyā - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) Spitāmī - proper name; vocative singular feminine <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) Spitāmō - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) spenta - adjective; nominative plural masculine <spənta-> 'beneficent, holy, sacred' spəntō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <spənta-> 'beneficent, holy, sacred' spəntå - adjective; nominative plural feminine <spənta-> 'beneficent, holy, sacred' spərədā - noun; instrumental singular feminine <spərəd-> 'zeal' spə̄ništā - adjective; instrumental singular neuter <spənta-> 'beneficent, holy, sacred' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative spə̄ništō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <spənta-> 'beneficent, holy, sacred' + superlative suffix; <-ista-> indicates superlative sraotā - verb; 2nd person plural aorist imperative active <sru> 'hear, listen' sravahī - noun; locative singular neuter <sravas-> 'fame' srāvayeŋ́hē - causative infinitive; dative <srāvay-> 'cause to be heard' srāvī - verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative passive <sru> 'give' šavaitē - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <šava-> 'drive forth, set in motion' šyaoθanāiš - noun; instrumental plural neuter <šyaoθana-> 'act, deed' šyaoθanāiš-cā - noun; instrumental plural neuter <šyaoθana-> 'act, deed' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' šyaoθanā-cā - noun; accusative plural neuter <šyaoθana-> 'act, deed' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' šyaoθanōi - noun; locative singular neuter <šyaoθana-> 'act, deed' šyaoθnaca - noun; instrumental singular neuter <šyaoθana-> 'act, deed' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' šyeitibyō - present participle active; dative plural feminine <ši> 'dwell' zairi-gaonō - adjective; <zairi-> 'yellow' + noun; nominative singular masculine <gaona-> 'hair' zaoθrābyasca - noun; instrumental plural neuter <zaoθra-> 'libations' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' zaoθrābyō - noun; instrumental plural neuter <zaoθra-> 'libations' Zaraθuštrahē - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Zaraθuštra-> 'Zarathustra' Zaraθuštrāi - proper name; dative singular masculine <Zaraθuštra-> 'Zarathustra' zaraθuštriš - adjective; nominative singular masculine <zaraθuštri-> 'descendent of Zarathustra' (?) Zaraθuštrō - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Zaraθuštra-> 'Zarathustra' zavə̄ng - noun; accusative plural neuter <zava-> 'call, request' zastayō - noun; locative dual masculine <zasta-> 'hand' zastavaṯ - possessive adjective; accusative singular neuter <zasta-> 'hand' + possessive suffix; <-vat-> '...' zastāiš - noun; instrumental plural masculine <zasta-> 'hand' zazəntī - verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive active <zā> 'conquer, win, come in first' zah́yā-cā - adjective; nominative plural masculine <zahya-> 'weakened' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' zāvarə - noun; accusative singular neuter <zāvar-> 'strength, vitality, vigor' zī - emphatic particle; <zi> 'for, indeed' zemō - noun; genitive singular feminine <zam-> 'earth, ground' ząm - noun; accusative singular feminine <zam-> 'earth, ground' zrazdištō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <zrazdišta-> 'most believing' haiθyā - noun; nominative plural masculine <haiθya-> 'true, real' haiθyāiš - adjective; instrumental plural neuter <haiθya-> 'true, real' Haēcaṯ-aspānā - compound proper name; vocative singular feminine <haēcaṯ-> '...' + ; <aspāna-> patronymic form of aspa- 'horse' haoma - noun; vocative singular masculine ' <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant haoma - noun; vocative singular masculine <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant haomayō - noun; locative dual masculine <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant haomahe - noun; genitive singular masculine <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant haomō - noun; nominative singular masculine <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant haxtayå - noun; genitive dual neuter <haxti-> 'thigh' haŋhuš - noun; accusative singular neuter <haŋhuš-> 'profit, harvest' hacaite - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' hacā - adposition; <hacā> 'from, out of' hacinte - verb; 3rd person plural present indicative middle <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' haθra - adverb; <haθra> 'together, at the same place/time' haθrā - preposition; <haθra> 'together, at the same place/time' haθrā-nivāitīm - adverb; <haθra> 'together, at the same place/time' + agent noun; accusative singular feminine <nivāiti-> 'striking down' hadā - preposition; <hadā> 'together with' han̨eurvayeiti - verbal prefix; <ham> 'together' + 3rd person singular present indicative active causative; <ru> 'flow' hamərəθanąm - noun; genitive plural masculine <hamərəθa> 'enemy' haraiθyō - noun; genitive singular feminine <haraitī-> name of a mountain havanəm - noun; accusative singular masculine <havana-> 'pressing stone' hazaošō - adjective; nominative singular masculine <hazaoša-> 'like-minded' hazaŋra-gaošəm - adjective; <hazara-> 'thousand' + noun; accusative singular masculine <gaoša-> 'ear' hazan̨raγnyāi - adjective; <hazara-> 'thousand' + noun; <ganya-> 'slaying, killing, destroying' hazas-cā - noun; nominative singular masculine <haza-> 'power, violence, oppression' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' hātąm - present participle active; genitive plural masculine <ah-> 'be, become' hitaēibyō - noun; dative plural masculine <hita-> 'team of horses' hizvō - noun; instrumental singular masculine <hizu-> 'tongue' hī - emphatic particle; <hi> 'indeed' hīm - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine <ha-> '(s)he, this' huxratvō - prefix; <hu> 'well, good, beautiful' + noun; vocative singular masculine <xratu-> 'will, intention, vision' huxšaθrāiš - noun; instrumental singular masculine <huxšaθra-> 'good rule' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' hutāštəm - prefix; <hu> 'well, good, beautiful' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <tas> 'carve, create, fashion, shape' hudānvarəšvā - adverb (?); adjective stem <hudānu-> 'blessed' + verb; 2nd person singular aorist imperative middle <varəz-> 'work, perform' hudəmə̄m - noun; accusative singular masculine <hudəma-> 'sweetness' hudåŋhō - adjective; nominative plural neuter <hudah-> 'of good gifts, beneficent' hubaoiδiš - prefix; <hu> 'well, good, beautiful' + noun; nominative singular masculine <baoiδi-> 'smell' humązdrā - adjective; vocative plural masculine <humązdra-> 'careful, good to see' huruθma - prefix; <hu> 'well, good, beautiful' + noun; nominative singular masculine <ruθma-> 'growth, increase' hušitōiš - noun; genitive singular feminine <hušiti-> 'good dwelling, comfort, safety' hušəitīš - noun; accusative plural feminine <hušiti-> 'good dwelling, comfort, safety' hušə̄nem - adjective; accusative singular neuter <hušə̄na-> 'profitable' hūitiš - noun; nominative singular feminine <hūiti-> 'pressure' hō - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' hōi - demonstrative pronoun; dative singular feminine <ha-> '(s)he, this' hōi - personal pronoun; dative singular masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' hōi - demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine / feminine <ha-> '(s)he, this' hōi - demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this' hōiš - contracted form (?); demonstrative pronoun <ha-> '(s)he, this' + demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter (?) <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' hə̄ntū - verb; 3rd person plural present imperative active <ah-> 'be, become' hə̄ndvārəntā - verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative middle <həm> '...' + ; <dvar> 'rush together' hə̄m - preposition; <hə̄m> 'together, with' hə̄miθyāṯ - compound verb; 3rd person singular aorist optative active <həm> '...' + ; <miθ> 'rob of' hyaṯ - conjunction; <hyaṯ> 'if, so, when' hyaṯ - relative adverb; <hyaṯ> 'if, so, when' hyaṯ-cā - conjunction; <hyaṯ> 'if, so, when' + conjunction; <ca> 'and' hyaṯ-cīṯ - conjunction; <hyaṯ> 'if, so, when' + indefinite participle; <cīṯ> '...' h́yāmā - verb; 3rd person plural present optative middle <ah-> 'be, become' hvaŋhəvīm - noun; accusative singular neuter <hvaŋhaoya-> 'good existence' hvō - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <ha-> '(s)he, this'