Old Iranian Online

Old Persian: English Meaning Index

This English Index lists, in alphabetical order, seemingly significant words used in the "general meaning" glosses of Base Forms underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each English word, base forms having that word in their general meanings are shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms sharing a general English meaning word. In order to reduce clutter in this index, certain high-frequency English "function" words are ignored unless there are no "content" words in the meaning.

This index was created by software, not by human hand, using lesson materials authored with very few constraints on the expression of "meaning" other than it being in English. Selecting significant words from free-form text via software is a notoriously difficult task. For example, while most meanings in these lessons are expressed as "glosses," some or parts may be comments directed toward the human reader, who is expected to discern the difference. Computer software cannot yet make such subtle linguistic distinctions, so all words in a meaning are treated alike. With few exceptions, then, all words are indexed. The results are neither produced nor presented with any claims to superior linguistic sensitivity, but at least the full meaning texts are shown for your inspection and judgment. Modest effort was invested in tuning the software to ignore [apparently] superfluous, high-frequency words (e.g., the preposition "of") that, in the presence of [apparently] more important words, contribute little or no useful information to an index; unfortunately this may result in some words, in some contexts, being unfairly omitted.




ABOVE : <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' -- ACCORDANCE : <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' -- ACCOUNT : <rādiy> 'on account of' -- ACHAEMENID : <haxāmanišiya-> 'Achaemenid' -- ACTIVE : <taxš> 'be active, build, carve, make' -- ACTIVE : <var> active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince' -- AFAR : <dūraiy> 'afar, far away' -- AFRAID : <tars> 'fear, be afraid' -- AFTER : <apara-> 'later, after' -- AFTER : <aparam> 'after' -- AFTER : <pasāva> 'after(wards)' -- AGAINST : <abiy> 'to, toward, against' -- AGAINST : <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' -- AHURA : <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- AID : <upastā-> 'aid, support' -- ALL : <haruva-> 'all' -- ALL : <visa-> 'all, every' -- ALL : <vispa-> 'all, every' -- ALLY : <anušiya-> 'follower, ally' -- AMONG : <atar> 'within, among' -- AND : <utā> 'and' -- ANY : <kašciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' -- ANYONE : <kašciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' -- ANYTHING : <kašciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' -- APART : <vi> 'wide, apart' -- ARYAN : <ariya-> 'Aryan' -- ASK : <avahya-> 'ask for help' -- ASK : <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- ASK : <jad> 'pray, ask' -- AUTUMN : <θard-> 'autumn, year' -- AWAY : <apa> 'away' -- AWAY : <ava> 'away, down' -- AWAY : <dūraiy> 'afar, far away' -- BAD : <duš> 'difficult, bad, evil' -- BARDIYA : <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- BATTLE : <partara-> 'battle' -- BATTLEFIELD : <gāθu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' -- BE : <ah> 'be' -- BEAR : <bar> 'bear, carry' -- BEAUTIFUL : <naiba-> 'beautiful, pious' -- BECAUSE : <yaθā> 'as, when, because' -- BECOME : <bu> 'be, become' -- BEFORE : <paranam> 'before' -- BEFORE : <paruva-> 'before, previous' -- BEFORE : <paruvam> 'previously, before' -- BEYOND : <parā> 'forth, forward, beyond' -- BLESSED : <artāvan-> 'blessed, righteous' -- BROTHER : <brātar-> 'brother' -- BUBBLE : <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' -- BUILD : <taxš> 'be active, build, carve, make' -- BUT : <ca> 'and, but' -- BY : <nāma> 'by name, named, called' -- CALENDAR : <Bāgayādi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October -- CALENDAR : <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July -- CALENDAR : <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March -- CALL : <zbā-> 'call' -- CALLED : <nāma> 'by name, named, called' -- CAMBYSES : <Kambūjiya-> 'Cambyses' -- CARRY : <bar> 'bear, carry' -- CARVE : <taxš> 'be active, build, carve, make' -- CARVED : <patikara-> 'picture, carved/incised likeness' -- CHOOSE : <var> active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince' -- CLAN : <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- CONVINCE : <var> active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince' -- CORRUPT : <tya-> (corrupt form) 'that' -- COUNTRY : <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- COURT : <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- COVER : <var> active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince' -- CREATE : <dā> 'put, make, create' -- CYRUS : <Kūru-> 'Cyrus' -- DAIVA : <daiva-> 'daiva' -- DARE : <dars> 'dare' -- DARIUS : <Dārayavahu-> 'Darius' -- DAY : <raucah-> 'day' -- DEATH : <uvāmaršiyu-> 'self-inflicted death' -- DECEIT : <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' -- DECEITFUL : <draujana-> 'deceitful, follower of the Lie' -- DECEIVE : <drug-> 'lie, deceive' -- DECLARE : <θah> 'speak, say, declare' -- DENOTES : <kā> (denotes generalization) -- DESIRE : <kāma-> 'wish, desire' -- DIE : <mar> 'die' -- DIFFICULT : <duš> 'difficult, bad, evil' -- DIG : <kan> 'dig' -- DO : <kar> 'do, make' -- DOWN : <ava> 'away, down' -- DOWN : <ni> 'down' -- DURABLE : <duruva-> 'durable, stable, firm, secure' -- DURING : <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' -- EARTH : <būmi-> 'earth' -- EGYPT : <Mudrāya-> 'Egypt' -- EMPHASIS : <diy> (used for emphasis) -- EMPHATIC : <apiy> emphatic particle -- ENGRAVE : <paiθ> 'inscribe, engrave' -- EVERY : <visa-> 'all, every' -- EVERY : <vispa-> 'all, every' -- EVIL : <arika-> 'treacherous, evil, hostile' -- EVIL : <duš> 'difficult, bad, evil' -- EVIL : <gasta-> 'evil, harm' -- EVIL : <zūra-> 'evil' -- EVIL-DOER : <zūrakara-> 'evil-doer' -- EXAMINE : <parsa-> 'examine, read' -- EXPRESSES : <mā> (expresses prohibition) -- FALL : <pat> 'fly, fall' -- FALSE : <duruxta-> 'false' -- FAMILY : <taumā-> 'family' -- FAR : <dūra> 'far' -- FAR : <dūraiy> 'afar, far away' -- FATHER : <pītar-> 'father' -- FAVOR : <vašna-> 'will, favor' -- FEAR : <tars> 'fear, be afraid' -- FEBRUARY : <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March -- FEW : <kamna-> 'few' -- FIRM : <duruva-> 'durable, stable, firm, secure' -- FIRST : <fratama-> 'first, foremost' -- FLY : <pat> 'fly, fall' -- FOLLOWER : <anušiya-> 'follower, ally' -- FOLLOWER : <draujana-> 'deceitful, follower of the Lie' -- FOREMOST : <fratama-> 'first, foremost' -- FORM : <tya-> (corrupt form) 'that' -- FORTH : <fra> 'to, toward, forth' -- FORTH : <parā> 'forth, forward, beyond' -- FORTRESS : <didā-> 'fortress, wall' -- FORWARD : <parā> 'forth, forward, beyond' -- FOURTEEN : <XIV> 'fourteen' -- FOURTH : <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July -- FRIEND : <dauštar-> 'friend' -- FROM : <hacā> 'from, out of' -- GAUMATA : <Gaumāta-> 'Gaumata' -- GENERALIZATION : <kā> (denotes generalization) -- GIVE : <dā> 'give, take' -- GO : <ay> 'go' -- GO : <gam> 'go' -- GO : <i> 'go' -- GO : <šiyu> 'set out, go' -- GOD : <baga-> 'god' -- GOOD : <u> 'well, good' -- GRAB : <grab> 'seize, grab' -- GREAT : <vazraka-> 'great' -- GREATLY : <daršam> 'greatly, mightily, steadfastly' -- GREATLY : <vasiy> 'greatly, utterly' -- GREEK : <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- HAPPINESS : <šiyati-> 'welfare, peace, happiness' -- HAPPY : <šiyāta-> 'happy' -- HARM : <gasta-> 'evil, harm' -- HASTE : <ranga-> 'speed, haste' -- HE : <aita-> 'he, this' -- HE : <hauv-> 'he, this' -- HE : <ima-> 'he, this' -- HE : <sa-> 'he, this' -- HE : <ša-> 'he, this' -- HE : <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- HELP : <avahya-> 'ask for help' -- HERE : <idā> 'here' -- HIDE : <gud> 'hide' -- HOLD : <dar> 'hold, support' -- HOLD : <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- HOSTILE : <arika-> 'treacherous, evil, hostile' -- HOUSE : <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- HOW : <cayakaram> 'how much, how many' -- HUMAN : <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- HYSTASPES : <Vištāspa-> 'Hystaspes' -- IF : <yadiy> 'if, when' -- INCISED : <patikara-> 'picture, carved/incised likeness' -- INDICT : <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- INJURE : <nāθ> 'injure, rend' -- INQUIRE : <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- INSCRIBE : <paiθ> 'inscribe, engrave' -- INSCRIPTION : <dipi-> 'inscription' -- INVESTIGATE : <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- JULY : <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July -- JUNE : <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July -- KING : <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' -- KINGDOM : <xšaça-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' -- KINGSHIP : <xšaça-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' -- KNOW : <xšnā> 'learn, know' -- KNOWN : <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- KNOWN : <azdā> 'known' -- LAND : <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- LATER : <apara-> 'later, after' -- LAW : <dāta-> 'law' -- LEARN : <xšnā> 'learn, know' -- LIE : <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' -- LIE : <draujana-> 'deceitful, follower of the Lie' -- LIE : <drug-> 'lie, deceive' -- LIFE : <jīvā-> 'life' -- LIKENESS : <patikara-> 'picture, carved/incised likeness' -- LINEAGE : <ciça-> 'seed, lineage' -- LIVING : <jiva-> 'living' -- LONG : <dargam> 'long' -- LONG : <yātā> 'until, while, as long as' -- LOOK : <di> 'see, look' -- LORD : <framātar-> 'lord, master' -- MAGIAN : <magu-> 'Magian' -- MAKE : <dā> 'put, make, create' -- MAKE : <kar> 'do, make' -- MAKE : <taxš> 'be active, build, carve, make' -- MAN : <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' -- MAN : <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- MAN : <zana-> 'man' -- MANY : <cayakaram> 'how much, how many' -- MANY : <paru-> 'much, many' -- MARCH : <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March -- MASTER : <framātar-> 'lord, master' -- MAZDA : <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- MEDIA : <Māda-> 'Media' -- MIDDLE : <var> active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince' -- MIGHTILY : <daršam> 'greatly, mightily, steadfastly' -- MONTH : <Bāgayādi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October -- MONTH : <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July -- MONTH : <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March -- MONTH : <māha-> 'month' -- MORTAL : <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- MOTHER : <mātar-> 'mother' -- MOUNTAIN : <Arakadri-> a mountain in Persia -- MOUNTAIN : <kaufa-> 'mountain' -- MOVE : <ar> 'move toward' -- MUCH : <cayakaram> 'how much, how many' -- MUCH : <paru-> 'much, many' -- NAME : <nāma> 'by name, named, called' -- NAMED : <nāma> 'by name, named, called' -- NINE : <IX> 'nine' -- NISAYA : <Nisāya-> 'Nisaya' -- NOT : <naiy> 'not' -- NOW : <nūram> 'now' -- OCTOBER : <Bāgayādi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October -- OF : <hacā> 'from, out of' -- OFFERING : <dāna-> 'offering' -- ONE : <I> 'one' -- ONE : <aiva-> 'one' -- OR : <vā> 'or' -- ORDER : <tya-> '(so/in order) that' -- OTHER : <aniya-> 'other' -- OUT : <hacā> 'from, out of' -- OVER : <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' -- OVER : <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' -- PAISHIYAUVADA : <Paišiyāuvādā-> 'Paishiyauvada' -- PARTICLE : <apiy> emphatic particle -- PAST : <θakatay-> 'past' -- PEACE : <šiyati-> 'welfare, peace, happiness' -- PEOPLE : <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' -- PERSIA : <Arakadri-> a mountain in Persia -- PERSIA : <Pārsa-> 'Persia' -- PERSIAN : <Bāgayādi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October -- PERSIAN : <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July -- PERSIAN : <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March -- PERSIAN : <pārsa-> 'Persian' -- PERSON : <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' -- PICTURE : <patikara-> 'picture, carved/incised likeness' -- PIOUS : <naiba-> 'beautiful, pious' -- PLACE : <gāθu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' -- PLACE : <šta> 'sit, set, place' -- POSSESSING : <tunuvat-> 'possessing power' -- POWER : <tunuvat-> 'possessing power' -- PRAY : <jad> 'pray, ask' -- PREVIOUS : <paruva-> 'before, previous' -- PREVIOUSLY : <paruvam> 'previously, before' -- PROHIBITION : <mā> (expresses prohibition) -- PROTECT : <pā> 'protect' -- PUT : <dā> 'put, make, create' -- READ : <parsa-> 'examine, read' -- REBELLIOUS : <hamiçiya-> 'rebellious' -- RECORD : <hadugā-> 'record, statute' -- REGION : <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- REND : <nāθ> 'injure, rend' -- RESPECT : <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' -- RESPECT : <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' -- REVERE : <yad> 'revere, worship' -- REVERENT : <brazmaniya-> 'reverent' -- RIGHTEOUS : <artāvan-> 'blessed, righteous' -- RIGHTEOUSNESS : <arštā-> 'righteousness, Truth' -- RISE : <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' -- ROYAL : <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- ROYAL : <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' -- SAME : <hama-> 'same' -- SAY : <θah> 'speak, say, declare' -- SECURE : <duruva-> 'durable, stable, firm, secure' -- SEE : <di> 'see, look' -- SEE : <vaina-> 'see' -- SEED : <ciça-> 'seed, lineage' -- SEIZE : <dī> 'take, seize' -- SEIZE : <grab> 'seize, grab' -- SELF-INFLICTED : <uvāmaršiyu-> 'self-inflicted death' -- SEPTEMBER : <Bāgayādi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October -- SET : <šiyu> 'set out, go' -- SET : <šta> 'sit, set, place' -- SEVENTH : <Bāgayādi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October -- SHE : <ši-> 'she, this' -- SIKAYAUVATI : <Sikayauvati-> 'Sikayauvati' -- SIT : <had> 'sit' -- SIT : <šta> 'sit, set, place' -- SKY : <asman-> 'sky' -- SLAY : <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- SMERDIS : <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- SMITE : <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- SMITER : <jatar-> 'smiter' -- SO : <tya-> '(so/in order) that' -- SON : <puça-> 'son' -- SOURCES : <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- SOVEREIGNTY : <xšaça-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' -- SPEAK : <θah> 'speak, say, declare' -- SPEAR : <aršti-> 'spear, weapon' -- SPEED : <ranga-> 'speed, haste' -- STABLE : <duruva-> 'durable, stable, firm, secure' -- STATUTE : <hadugā-> 'record, statute' -- STEADFASTLY : <daršam> 'greatly, mightily, steadfastly' -- STRIKE : <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- SUPPORT : <dar> 'hold, support' -- SUPPORT : <upastā-> 'aid, support' -- TAKE : <dā> 'give, take' -- TAKE : <dī> 'take, seize' -- TEN : <X> 'ten' -- THAT : <ava-> 'this, that' -- THAT : <tya-> '(so/in order) that' -- THAT : <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- THAT : <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- THAT : <tya-> (corrupt form) 'that' -- THEN : <ada> 'then' -- THEN : <avadā> 'then, there' -- THEN : <avaθa> 'thus, then' -- THERE : <avadā> 'then, there' -- THINK : <man> 'think' -- THIS : <a-> 'this' -- THIS : <aita-> 'he, this' -- THIS : <ava-> 'this, that' -- THIS : <di-> 'this' -- THIS : <hauv-> 'he, this' -- THIS : <ima-> 'he, this' -- THIS : <sa-> 'he, this' -- THIS : <ša-> 'he, this' -- THIS : <ši-> 'she, this' -- THIS : <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- THRONE : <gāθu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' -- THUS : <avā> 'thus, as' -- THUS : <avaθa> 'thus, then' -- TOGETHER : <hadā> 'with, together with' -- TOGETHER : <ham> 'together' -- TOWARD : <abiy> 'to, toward, against' -- TOWARD : <ar> 'move toward' -- TOWARD : <fra> 'to, toward, forth' -- TOWARD : <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' -- TREACHEROUS : <arika-> 'treacherous, evil, hostile' -- TRUE : <hašiya-> 'true' -- TRUTH : <arštā-> 'righteousness, Truth' -- TRUTH : <arta-> 'Truth' -- TURN : <vart> 'turn' -- TWELFTH : <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March -- UNTIL : <yātā> 'until, while, as long as' -- UP : <ud> 'up' -- UP : <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' -- USED : <diy> (used for emphasis) -- UTTERLY : <vasiy> 'greatly, utterly' -- WALL : <didā-> 'fortress, wall' -- WARDS : <pasāva> 'after(wards)' -- WEAK : <škauri-> 'weak' -- WEAPON : <aršti-> 'spear, weapon' -- WELFARE : <šiyati-> 'welfare, peace, happiness' -- WELL : <u> 'well, good' -- WELL-BORN : <bartam> 'well-born' -- WHAT : <hya-> 'who, what, which' -- WHEN : <yadiy> 'if, when' -- WHEN : <yaθā> 'as, when, because' -- WHERE : <yadā> 'where' -- WHICH : <hya-> 'who, what, which' -- WHICH : <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- WHILE : <yātā> 'until, while, as long as' -- WHO : <hya-> 'who, what, which' -- WHO : <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- WIDE : <vi> 'wide, apart' -- WILL : <vašna-> 'will, favor' -- WISH : <kāma-> 'wish, desire' -- WITHIN : <atar> 'within, among' -- WORSHIP : <yad> 'revere, worship' -- XERXES : <Xšayāršan-> 'Xerxes' -- YEAR : <θard-> 'autumn, year' -- YOU : <tuvam-> 'you' --