Old Iranian Online

Avestan: English Meaning Index

This English Index lists, in alphabetical order, seemingly significant words used in the "general meaning" glosses of Base Forms underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each English word, base forms having that word in their general meanings are shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms sharing a general English meaning word. In order to reduce clutter in this index, certain high-frequency English "function" words are ignored unless there are no "content" words in the meaning.

This index was created by software, not by human hand, using lesson materials authored with very few constraints on the expression of "meaning" other than it being in English. Selecting significant words from free-form text via software is a notoriously difficult task. For example, while most meanings in these lessons are expressed as "glosses," some or parts may be comments directed toward the human reader, who is expected to discern the difference. Computer software cannot yet make such subtle linguistic distinctions, so all words in a meaning are treated alike. With few exceptions, then, all words are indexed. The results are neither produced nor presented with any claims to superior linguistic sensitivity, but at least the full meaning texts are shown for your inspection and judgment. Modest effort was invested in tuning the software to ignore [apparently] superfluous, high-frequency words (e.g., the preposition "of") that, in the presence of [apparently] more important words, contribute little or no useful information to an index; unfortunately this may result in some words, in some contexts, being unfairly omitted.




ABANDON : <zā> 'abandon, relinquish' -- ABODE : <nmāna-> 'abode, house' -- ABOVE : <uparəm> 'above' -- ABSENCE : <narəpi-> 'reduction, absence' -- ACCEPT : <xšam> 'accept' -- ACCOMPANY : <haca-> 'follow, accompany' (?) -- ACCORDANCE : <ašavan-> '(in accordance with) Truth' -- ACQUISITION : <vaēδayana-> 'attainment, discovery, acquisition' -- ACROSS : <param> 'far, away, opposite, across' -- ACT : <šyaoθana-> 'act, deed' -- ACTION : <verəz-> 'perform an action' -- ADHERE : <rāθ> 'adhere' -- ADHERENT : <kəvi-> 'title: adherent to the daevic religion' (?) -- ADHERING : <rāthəma-> 'adhering to' -- ADVERSARY : <aurvaθana-> 'adversary' -- AFTER : <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' -- AGREEMENT : <miθra-> 'contract, agreement, pact' -- AIR : <vayu-> 'air, wind' (?) -- ALL : <vispa-> 'everyone/thing, all' -- ALL : <vīspa-> 'all, every' -- ALLIANCE : <sar-> 'protection, alliance' -- ALONE : <aēva-> 'one, alone' -- AMONG : <pairi> 'around, among' -- AND : <ca> 'and' -- AND : <uta> 'and' -- ANGER : <aēšma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' -- ANGER : <aēšəma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' -- ANGUISH : <dvafša-> 'distress, ruin, pain, anguish' -- ANIMAL : <mərəγa-> 'forest animal, bird' -- ANNOUNCE : <saŋh> 'announce, proclaim' -- APART : <ci> 'discriminate, tell apart' -- APART : <vi> 'wide, apart' -- APPEARANCE : <kəhrp-> 'form, body, outward appearance' -- APPROACHING : <aipi> 'toward, approaching' -- AROUND : <pairi> 'around, among' -- ARRIVE : <iš> 'strive, desire, arrive' -- ASK : <gad> 'ask, entreat, supplicate' -- ASK : <pərəs-> 'ask' -- ASPA- : <aspāna-> patronymic form of aspa- 'horse' -- ASSEMBLY-SPEAKING : <vaȳxana-> 'assembly-speaking, rhetorically skilled' -- ATONEMENT : <kaēnā-> 'atonement, punishment' -- ATONEMENT : <spayaθra-> 'atonement, prosperity' -- ATTACK : <vərəθra-> 'attack, victory' -- ATTAIN : <ans> 'attain' -- ATTAINMENT : <vaēδayana-> 'attainment, discovery, acquisition' -- ATTENTIVE : <bud> 'be attentive, aware' -- ATTITUDE : <daēnā-> 'attitude, intention, insight' -- AWAKE : <gar> 'be awake' -- AWARE : <bud> 'be attentive, aware' -- AWAY : <ava> 'away, down' -- AWAY : <param> 'far, away, opposite, across' -- AWAY : <parā> 'before, beyond, away' -- BACK : <barəša-> 'neck, back' -- BAD : <aka-> 'bad, evil, wicked' -- BAD : <duš-> 'bad, evil' -- BAD : <duždā-> 'of bad gifts, maleficent' -- BADLY : <dužvarena-> 'choosing badly' -- BASE : <būna-> 'ground, base' -- BEAR : <bar> 'bear, carry' -- BEAR : <zan> 'bear, give birth' -- BEAT : <mru> 'drive, plunge, beat' -- BEAUTIFUL : <darəsata-> 'visible, beautiful to see' -- BEAUTIFUL : <hu> 'well, good, beautiful' -- BECAUSE : <hyat> 'as, since, because' -- BECAUSE : <yezī> 'as, because, when' -- BECOME : <ah-> 'be, become' -- BECOME : <bu> 'be, become' -- BEFORE : <parā> 'before, beyond, away' -- BEGUILEMENT : <dəbaoman-> 'beguilement, deception' -- BELIEVING : <zrazdišta-> 'most believing' -- BELONGING : <xvaētu-> 'belonging to the family' -- BENEFICENT : <hudah-> 'of good gifts, beneficent' -- BENEFICENT : <spənta-> 'beneficent, holy, sacred' -- BENEFIT : <sava-> 'benefit, salvation' -- BEST : <mairišṯa-> 'knowing/remembering best' -- BETTER : <-tara-> 'more, better' -- BETTER : <vahya-> 'better' -- BEYOND : <parā> 'before, beyond, away' -- BIG : <bərəzant-> 'high, elevated, lofty, big, great, clear' -- BIND : <hišāy-> 'bind, tie up' -- BIRD : <mərəγa-> 'forest animal, bird' -- BIRTH : <zan> 'bear, give birth' -- BLESSED : <hudānu-> 'blessed' -- BLISS : <urvāza-> 'joy, bliss' -- BLOODLUST : <rəma-> 'bloodlust, violence, chains' -- BLOODY : <xrvi-> 'bloody' -- BODY : <kəhrp-> 'form, body, outward appearance' -- BODY : <tanu-> 'body' -- BOON : <āyapta-> 'riches, bounty, boon, spoils' -- BOTH : <uvaya-> 'both' -- BOUNTY : <āyapta-> 'riches, bounty, boon, spoils' -- BRANCH : <fravāxš-> 'stalk, branch, penis' -- BREATH : <ahu-> 'existence, life, breath' -- BREATH : <ąnman-> 'spirit, breath' -- BREATHING : <xvathra-> 'good breathing, ease, comfort' -- BREED : <fsuya-> 'breed (esp. cattle)' -- BRING : <marək-> 'kill, destroy, bring ruin' -- BROAD : <pərəθu-> 'wide, broad' -- BROAD : <varav-> 'wide, broad' -- BROUGHT : <peša-> 'brought to an end' -- BUNDLE : <barəsman-> grass bundle used in the Indo-Iranian sacrifice -- BUT : <aṯ> 'then, but, and, so, thus' -- BUT : <āaṯ> 'then, thereupon, therefore, and, but' -- BUTTER : <āzuiti-> 'fat, butter' -- CALL : <zava-> 'call, request' -- CARE : <θwaxša-> 'zeal, care, nurture' -- CAREFUL : <humązdra-> 'careful, good to see' -- CARRIAGE : <barana-> 'carriage, support' -- CARRY : <bar> 'bear, carry' -- CARVE : <tas> 'carve, create, fashion, shape' -- CARVE : <θwarōz> 'carve, fashion, shape, create' -- CARVER : <tašar-> 'carver, fashioner, shaper, creator' -- CATEGORY : <kayaδa-> category of evil deed -- CATTLE : <fsuya-> 'breed (esp. cattle)' -- CAUSE : <srāvay-> 'cause to be heard' -- CAUSE : <vaxšaya-> 'cause to grow' -- CELEBRATE : <stu> 'praise, laud, extol, celebrate' -- CERTAINLY : <ahe> 'indeed, certainly' -- CHAINS : <rəma-> 'bloodlust, violence, chains' -- CHANGING : <maēδa-> 'changing, false' -- CHARIOT : <raθa-> 'chariot' -- CHOICE : <āvarəna-> 'invitation, choice' -- CHOOSE : <var> 'choose' -- CHOOSE : <vərən-> 'choose' -- CHOOSING : <dužvarena-> 'choosing badly' -- CLAN : <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) -- CLAN : <viž-> 'clan' -- CLASS : <fravaši-> the immortal element in a person, personified as a class of deity -- CLEAR : <bərəzant-> 'high, elevated, lofty, big, great, clear' -- CLEAR : <ciθrəm> 'manifest, clear, visible, plain' -- CLEAR : <sūca-> 'light, pure, clear' -- CLOTHED : <vas> 'be clothed, swathed' -- CLOUD : <maēγa-> 'cloud' -- COME : <zā> 'conquer, win, come in first' -- COMFORT : <hušiti-> 'good dwelling, comfort, safety' -- COMFORT : <xvathra-> 'good breathing, ease, comfort' -- COMMANDMENT : <urvāta-> 'rule, order, commandment' -- COMPLAIN : <gərəz-> 'lament, complain' -- CONCERN : <frāxšnəna-> 'concern' -- CONQUER : <zā> 'conquer, win, come in first' -- CONSIDERED : <mazdāδa-> 'thing to be considered' -- CONTRACT : <miθra-> 'contract, agreement, pact' -- CONVEYS : <ā> (conveys sense of reversal with verbs of motion) -- CORRECT : <ərəš-> 'right, correct, true' -- COUNTRY : <dahyav-> 'country, region, realm' -- COW : <gao-> 'cow' -- CREATE : <tas> 'carve, create, fashion, shape' -- CREATE : <θwarōz> 'carve, fashion, shape, create' -- CREATION : <dāman-> 'dwelling, creation, creatures (pl.)' -- CREATION : <dāmi-> 'creation' -- CREATOR : <tašar-> 'carver, fashioner, shaper, creator' -- CREATURES : <dāman-> 'dwelling, creation, creatures (pl.)' -- CRY : <bərət> 'cry' (?) -- CRY : <rud> 'howl, cry out, lament' -- CURATIVE : <baēšazya-> 'generative, curative' -- DAEVIC : <kəvi-> 'title: adherent to the daevic religion' (?) -- DAMAGE : <rašah-> 'harm, damage' -- DARKNESS : <rajī-> 'darkness' -- DAUGHTER : <dugədar-> 'daughter' -- DEATH : <ajyaiti-> 'death' -- DEATH : <mərəthyu-> 'death' -- DECEIT : <druj-> 'deceit' -- DECEIVE : <draoga-> 'lie, deceive' -- DECEPTION : <dəbaoman-> 'beguilement, deception' -- DECISION : <vīciδa-> 'decision, judgement' -- DECLARE : <vak> 'say, speak, declare' -- DEED : <kayaδa-> category of evil deed -- DEED : <šyaoθana-> 'act, deed' -- DEFENSE : <piθa-> 'defense' -- DEFILEMENT : <āhiti-> 'defilement, pollution -- DEITY : <baγa-> 'god, deity' -- DEITY : <fravaši-> the immortal element in a person, personified as a class of deity -- DESCENDENT : <zaraθuštri-> 'descendent of Zarathustra' (?) -- DESIRE : <iš> 'strive, desire, arrive' -- DESIRE : <vas> 'desire, wish' -- DESPISE : <ṯbiš> 'hate, despise' -- DESTROY : <jan> 'smite, slay, destroy' -- DESTROY : <marək-> 'kill, destroy, bring ruin' -- DESTROY : <mrc> 'destroy' -- DESTROY : <vādāya-> 'destroy' -- DESTROYING : <ganya-> 'slaying, killing, destroying' -- DESTRUCTION : <skənda-> 'destruction' -- DEVOTE : <frī> 'devote' -- DEVOTION : <Armaiti-> name of a goddess = 'righteousness, devotion, piety' -- DEVOTION : <ārmaiti-> 'devotion, piety' -- DIRECTION : <vīzxvanca> 'in every direction' (?) -- DISAPPEAR : <nas> 'be lost, disappear' -- DISCERNING : <vīcira-> 'discerning' -- DISCOVERY : <vaēδayana-> 'attainment, discovery, acquisition' -- DISCRIMINATE : <ci> 'discriminate, tell apart' -- DISCUSS : <fras> 'inquire, discuss' -- DISTRESS : <dvafša-> 'distress, ruin, pain, anguish' -- DIVINE : <daēva-> 'divine being' -- DO : <kar> 'do, make' -- DO : <vərəz> 'do, make, perform' -- DOCTRINE : <sāxvan-> 'doctrine, teaching, instruction' -- DOWN : <aorā> 'down' -- DOWN : <ava> 'away, down' -- DOWN : <avar> 'down' -- DOWN : <ni> 'down' -- DOWN : <nivāiti-> 'striking down' -- DOWN : <ə̄əāvā> 'down' -- DREAM : <xvafna-> 'sleep, dream' -- DREAM-LIKE : <xvapah-> 'dream-like' -- DRIVE : <mru> 'drive, plunge, beat' -- DRIVE : <šava-> 'drive forth, set in motion' -- DURATION : <yav-> 'duration, period, time of life' -- DURING : <yavan-> 'during life' -- DWELL : <ši> 'dwell' -- DWELLING : <dāman-> 'dwelling, creation, creatures (pl.)' -- DWELLING : <hušiti-> 'good dwelling, comfort, safety' -- EAR : <gaoša-> 'ear' -- EAR : <gə̄uša-> 'ear' -- EARTH : <zam-> 'earth, ground' -- EASE : <xvathra-> 'good breathing, ease, comfort' -- EFFECTIVE : <āsna-> 'successful, effective' -- ELEMENT : <fravaši-> the immortal element in a person, personified as a class of deity -- ELEVATED : <bərəz-> 'be high, elevated' -- ELEVATED : <bərəzant-> 'high, elevated, lofty, big, great, clear' -- EMACIATED : <uruša-> 'emaciated' -- EMPHATIC : <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense -- END : <peša-> 'brought to an end' -- ENDURING : <utayūiti-> 'fresh, lasting, enduring' -- ENEMY : <hamərəθa> 'enemy' -- ENERGY : <ah> 'energy, zest, zeal' -- ENTREAT : <gad> 'ask, entreat, supplicate' -- EVERY : <vīspa-> 'all, every' -- EVERY : <vīzxvanca> 'in every direction' (?) -- EVERYONE : <vispa-> 'everyone/thing, all' -- EVIL : <aka-> 'bad, evil, wicked' -- EVIL : <duš-> 'bad, evil' -- EVIL : <kayaδa-> category of evil deed -- EXALTED : <barəz> 'high, exalted, loud' -- EXISTENCE : <ahu-> 'existence, life, breath' -- EXISTENCE : <aŋhu-> 'existence, life' -- EXISTENCE : <hvaŋhaoya-> 'good existence' -- EXPRESS : <mā> used to express prohibition -- EXTOL : <stu> 'praise, laud, extol, celebrate' -- EYE : <cašman-> 'eye' -- FALSE : <drug-> 'false' -- FALSE : <maēδa-> 'changing, false' -- FALSE : <mairya-> 'false, malicious' -- FAME : <sravas-> 'fame' -- FAMILY : <xvaētu-> 'belonging to the family' -- FAR : <param> 'far, away, opposite, across' -- FASHION : <tas> 'carve, create, fashion, shape' -- FASHION : <θwarōz> 'carve, fashion, shape, create' -- FASHIONER : <tašar-> 'carver, fashioner, shaper, creator' -- FASHIONER : <θwōrəšṯar> 'Fashioner' -- FASTEST : <asišta-> 'fastest' -- FAT : <āzuiti-> 'fat, butter' -- FATHER : <pitar-> 'father' -- FEET : <carana-> 'moving, feet, support' -- FERTILE : <azi-> 'fertile' -- FIND : <vis> 'find' -- FIRE : <ātar-> 'fire' -- FIRM : <paityāstī-> 'firm foundation' -- FIRM : <xrūždra-> 'hard, firm' -- FIRST : <paouruya-> 'first, original' -- FIRST : <zā> 'conquer, win, come in first' -- FIT : <dab> 'fit together' (?) -- FLOW : <ru> 'flow' -- FOLLOW : <haca-> 'follow, accompany' (?) -- FOLLOW : <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' -- FOLLOWER : <ašavant-> 'follower of the Truth' -- FOOD : <xvarətha-> 'food' -- FOREST : <mərəγa-> 'forest animal, bird' -- FORGING : <ādāna-> 'portion, forging together, retaliation' -- FORM : <aspāna-> patronymic form of aspa- 'horse' -- FORM : <kəhrp-> 'form, body, outward appearance' -- FORMULA : <maθra-> 'mantra, magic formula' -- FORMULAIC : <mąθra-> 'formulaic verse, spell, poetic intention' -- FORMULATED : <saxvār-> 'invocation, poetically formulated vow' -- FORTH : <šava-> 'drive forth, set in motion' -- FORTH : <ustana-> 'stretched forth' -- FORWARD : <fra> 'forward, toward' -- FOUNDATION : <paityāstī-> 'firm foundation' -- FRASHAOSTRA : <Ferašaoštra-> 'Frashaostra' -- FREEDOM : <xviti-> 'well-being, freedom of movement' -- FREEDOM : <ə̄nəiti-> 'ill-being, lack of freedom' -- FRESH : <utayūiti-> 'fresh, lasting, enduring' -- FROM : <hacā> 'from, out of' -- FURY : <aēšma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' -- FURY : <aēšəma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' -- FURY : <darəs-> 'wantoness, rage, fury' -- GENERATIVE : <baēšazya-> 'generative, curative' -- GIFT : <dah-> 'gift' -- GIFT : <maga-> 'gift' -- GIFT : <rāta-> 'gift' -- GIFTS : <duždā-> 'of bad gifts, maleficent' -- GIFTS : <hudah-> 'of good gifts, beneficent' -- GIRL : <kainya-> 'maiden, girl' -- GIVE : <dā-> 'give, put' -- GIVE : <sru> 'give' -- GIVE : <zan> 'bear, give birth' -- GIVES : <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense -- GIVING : <saošyant-> 'giving power; savior (?)' -- GLORIFICATION : <vahma-> 'glorification, praise' -- GLORY : <xvarənah-> 'glory' -- GO : <gam> 'go' -- GO : <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' -- GOD : <baγa-> 'god, deity' -- GODDESS : <Armaiti-> name of a goddess = 'righteousness, devotion, piety' -- GOING : <jaiti-> 'going' -- GOOD : <hu> 'well, good, beautiful' -- GOOD : <hudah-> 'of good gifts, beneficent' -- GOOD : <humązdra-> 'careful, good to see' -- GOOD : <hušiti-> 'good dwelling, comfort, safety' -- GOOD : <huxšaθra-> 'good rule' -- GOOD : <hvaŋhaoya-> 'good existence' -- GOOD : <vohu-> 'good' -- GOOD : <xva> 'good, worthy' -- GOOD : <xvathra-> 'good breathing, ease, comfort' -- GRASS : <barəsman-> grass bundle used in the Indo-Iranian sacrifice -- GREAT : <bərəzant-> 'high, elevated, lofty, big, great, clear' -- GREAT : <maz-> 'large, great' -- GROUND : <būna-> 'ground, base' -- GROUND : <zam-> 'earth, ground' -- GROW : <raod> 'grow, sprout' -- GROW : <vaxš> 'grow' -- GROW : <vaxšaya-> 'cause to grow' -- GROWTH : <frāidi-> 'growth, prosperity' -- GROWTH : <ruθma-> 'growth, increase' -- GUIDING : <fradaxštā-> 'guiding, instructive' -- HAIR : <gaona-> 'hair' -- HAND : <zasta-> 'hand' -- HARD : <xrūždra-> 'hard, firm' -- HARM : <rašah-> 'harm, damage' -- HARVEST : <haŋhuš-> 'profit, harvest' -- HATE : <ṯbiš> 'hate, despise' -- HATRED : <dvaesa-> 'hatred' -- HE : <a-> 'he, this' -- HE : <ha-> '(s)he, this' -- HE : <ta-> 'he, that, this' -- HEALTH : <drvatāt-> 'health, vitality' -- HEAR : <guš> 'hear' -- HEAR : <sru> 'hear, listen' -- HEARD : <srāvay-> 'cause to be heard' -- HEAVEN : <asan-> 'stone, heaven' -- HELP : <avah-> 'help, helping' -- HELPING : <avah-> 'help, helping' -- HENCEFORTH : <ahmaṯ> 'henceforth' -- HERDSMAN : <vāstar-> 'herdsman' -- HERDSMAN : <vāstrya-> 'herdsman; pasture' -- HERE : <aθra> 'here, there' -- HERE : <idā> 'here' -- HIGH : <baršnu-> 'high point, peak' -- HIGH : <barəz> 'high, exalted, loud' -- HIGH : <bərəz-> 'be high, elevated' -- HIGH : <bərəzant-> 'high, elevated, lofty, big, great, clear' -- HIM : <ana-> 'him' -- HOLY : <spənta-> 'beneficent, holy, sacred' -- HOMAGE : <vanta-> 'praise, homage' -- HORSE : <aspa-> 'horse' -- HORSE : <aspāna-> patronymic form of aspa- 'horse' -- HORSES : <hita-> 'team of horses' -- HOUSE : <nmāna-> 'abode, house' -- HOW : <kaθā> 'how, in what way' -- HOW : <yavaṯ> 'how long, as long as' -- HOWL : <rud> 'howl, cry out, lament' -- HOWL : <xruš> 'scream, howl' -- HUMAN : <mašya-> 'human being' -- HUNDRED : <sata-> 'hundred' -- HUSBAND : <paiti-> 'husband, master' -- HYMN : <staota-> 'hymn, song of praise' -- HYMN : <yasna-> 'sacrifice, offering, hymn' -- HYMNS : <carəkərəθra-> '(hymns of) praise' -- IF : <hyaṯ> 'if, so, when' -- ILL : <banaya-> 'poison, make ill' -- ILL-BEING : <ə̄nəiti-> 'ill-being, lack of freedom' -- IMMORTAL : <fravaši-> the immortal element in a person, personified as a class of deity -- IMPLEMENT : <āzhuš-> 'propulsion implement' -- INCREASE : <ruθma-> 'growth, increase' -- INDEED : <ahe> 'indeed, certainly' -- INDEED : <cīṯ> 'indeed, verily, etc.' -- INDEED : <hi> 'indeed' -- INDEED : <vā> 'indeed, for, etc.' -- INDEED : <zi> 'for, indeed' -- INDEFINITE : <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense -- INDEFINITE : <ciθ> indefinite marker -- INDICATES : <-ista-> indicates superlative -- INDO-IRANIAN : <barəsman-> grass bundle used in the Indo-Iranian sacrifice -- INQUIRE : <fras> 'inquire, discuss' -- INQUIRY : <frasā-> 'question, inquiry' -- INSIGHT : <daēnā-> 'attitude, intention, insight' -- INSIGHT : <vyāna-> 'insight, perception' -- INSIGHT : <xraθwa-> 'power, will, insight' -- INSTIGATE : <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' -- INSTRUCTION : <sāxvan-> 'doctrine, teaching, instruction' -- INSTRUCTIVE : <fradaxštā-> 'guiding, instructive' -- INSTRUMENTAL : <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' -- INTENTION : <daēnā-> 'attitude, intention, insight' -- INTENTION : <mąθra-> 'formulaic verse, spell, poetic intention' -- INTENTION : <xratu-> 'will, intention, vision' -- INTOXICANT : <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant -- INTOXICATION : <maδa-> 'intoxication' -- INVITATION : <āvarəna-> 'invitation, choice' -- INVOCATION : <saxvār-> 'invocation, poetically formulated vow' -- IRON : <ayah-> 'metal, iron' -- JOIN : <yuj> 'join, unite, yoke' -- JOY : <urvāza-> 'joy, bliss' -- JUDGEMENT : <ratu-> 'judgement, model, plan' -- JUDGEMENT : <vīciδa-> 'decision, judgement' -- JUICE : <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant -- JUST : <erezu-> 'straight, just' -- JUST : <yaθa> 'just as, like' -- JUSTLY : <ərəžəji-> 'living justly' -- KILL : <marək-> 'kill, destroy, bring ruin' -- KILLING : <ganya-> 'slaying, killing, destroying' -- KIND : <sareδa-> 'kind, sort, species' -- KNOW : <man> 'know, think' -- KNOW : <vid> 'see, know, obtain' -- KNOW : <xšnā> 'know' -- KNOWING : <mairišṯa-> 'knowing/remembering best' -- KNOWLEDGE : <cisti-> 'knowledge, thought' -- LACK : <ə̄nəiti-> 'ill-being, lack of freedom' -- LAMENT : <gərəz-> 'lament, complain' -- LAMENT : <rud> 'howl, cry out, lament' -- LARGE : <maz-> 'large, great' -- LAST : <apə̄məm> 'last' -- LASTING : <utayūiti-> 'fresh, lasting, enduring' -- LAUD : <stu> 'praise, laud, extol, celebrate' -- LEARN : <sac> 'learn, understand' -- LIBATIONS : <zaoθra-> 'libations' -- LIBERTY : <vasəiti-> 'liberty, prosperity' -- LIE : <draoga-> 'lie, deceive' -- LIE : <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' -- LIFE : <ahu-> 'existence, life, breath' -- LIFE : <aŋhu-> 'existence, life' -- LIFE : <frajyāiṯi> 'life's possibility' -- LIFE : <gaya-> 'life' -- LIFE : <jyātu-> 'life' -- LIFE : <yav-> 'duration, period, time of life' -- LIFE : <yavan-> 'during life' -- LIGHT : <raocah-> 'light' -- LIGHT : <sūca-> 'light, pure, clear' -- LIKE : <vat-> 'like' -- LIKE : <yaθa> 'just as, like' -- LIKE-MINDED : <hazaoša-> 'like-minded' -- LIKEWISE : <aθā> 'so, thus, likewise' -- LISTEN : <sru> 'hear, listen' -- LIVING : <ərəžəji-> 'living justly' -- LOFTY : <bərəzant-> 'high, elevated, lofty, big, great, clear' -- LOFTY : <ərəšva-> 'lofty' -- LONG : <avant-> 'as much, so much, so long, such' -- LONG : <darəga-> 'long' -- LONG : <yavaṯ> 'how long, as long as' -- LOOK : <vaēna-> 'see, observe, look' -- LORD : <ahu-> 'lord' -- LORD : <ahura-> 'lord' -- LOST : <nas> 'be lost, disappear' -- LOUD : <barəz> 'high, exalted, loud' -- LOWEST : <nitəma-> 'lowest' -- LOWLY : <ādra-> 'lowly' -- MADNESS-INDUCING : <maiδyah-> 'madness-inducing' -- MAGIC : <maθra-> 'mantra, magic formula' -- MAIDEN : <kainya-> 'maiden, girl' -- MAKE : <banaya-> 'poison, make ill' -- MAKE : <kar> 'do, make' -- MAKE : <vərəz> 'do, make, perform' -- MALEFICENT : <duždā-> 'of bad gifts, maleficent' -- MALICIOUS : <mairya-> 'false, malicious' -- MAN : <nar-> 'man' -- MAN-DEFILING : <xrūnar-> 'man-defiling' -- MAN-KILLING : <jə̄nar-> 'man-killing' -- MANIFEST : <ciθrəm> 'manifest, clear, visible, plain' -- MANTRA : <maθra-> 'mantra, magic formula' -- MANY : <pouru-> 'many' -- MARE : <aspi-> 'mare' -- MARKER : <ciθ> indefinite marker -- MARRY : <vaz> 'marry' -- MASTER : <paiti-> 'husband, master' -- METAL : <ayah-> 'metal, iron' -- MILK : <gaoman-> 'possessed of milk' -- MILK : <xšvid-> 'milk' -- MIND : <manah-> 'mind' -- MITHRA : <Miθra-> 'Mithra' -- MIX : <raēθa-> 'rush upon, mix with' -- MODEL : <ratu-> 'judgement, model, plan' -- MORE : <-tara-> 'more, better' -- MORTAL : <marəta-> 'mortal' -- MOST : <zrazdišta-> 'most believing' -- MOTHER : <barəθri-> 'mother, womb' -- MOTION : <ā> (conveys sense of reversal with verbs of motion) -- MOTION : <šava-> 'drive forth, set in motion' -- MOUNTAIN : <gairi-> 'mountain' -- MOUNTAIN : <haraitī-> name of a mountain -- MOUNTAIN : <paurvat-> 'mountain' -- MOVEMENT : <xviti-> 'well-being, freedom of movement' -- MOVING : <carana-> 'moving, feet, support' -- MUCH : <avant-> 'as much, so much, so long, such' -- MY : <ma-> 'my' -- NAME : <Armaiti-> name of a goddess = 'righteousness, devotion, piety' -- NAME : <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) -- NAME : <haraitī-> name of a mountain -- NEAR : <paiti> 'near, toward, with respect to' -- NEAR : <upa> 'near, up on/to, etc.' -- NECK : <barəša-> 'neck, back' -- NEEDY : <drigu-> 'needy, poor' -- NO : <a> 'no, none' -- NO : <nōiṯ> 'no, none' -- NONE : <a> 'no, none' -- NONE : <nōiṯ> 'no, none' -- NOR : <naēda> 'not, nor' -- NOT : <naēda> 'not, nor' -- NOURISHMENT : <xvareiti-> 'nourishment' -- NOW : <nū> 'now' -- NURTURE : <θwaxša-> 'zeal, care, nurture' -- OBSERVE : <vaēna-> 'see, observe, look' -- OBTAIN : <vid> 'see, know, obtain' -- OF : <hacā> 'from, out of' -- OFFER : <yam> 'offer' -- OFFER : <yaz> 'sacrifice, offer' -- OFFERING : <yasna-> 'sacrifice, offering, hymn' -- OFFSPRING : <frazanti-> 'progeny, offspring' -- ONE : <aēva-> 'one, alone' -- ONE : <mazda-> 'wise one' -- OPPOSITE : <fratarəm> 'opposite' -- OPPOSITE : <param> 'far, away, opposite, across' -- OPPRESSION : <haza-> 'power, violence, oppression' -- ORDER : <urvāta-> 'rule, order, commandment' -- ORDER : <yaθra> 'where, in order to' -- ORGAN : <vaxəδra-> 'speech organ' -- ORIGINAL : <paouruya-> 'first, original' -- OTHER : <anya-> 'other' -- OUT : <hacā> 'from, out of' -- OUTWARD : <kəhrp-> 'form, body, outward appearance' -- OVERCOME : <van> 'surpass, overcome' -- PACT : <miθra-> 'contract, agreement, pact' -- PAIN : <dvafša-> 'distress, ruin, pain, anguish' -- PARTAKE : <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' -- PASTURE : <vāstrya-> 'herdsman; pasture' -- PASTURE : <yaoti-> 'pasture' -- PATH : <paθ-> 'path, road' -- PEACE : <rāman-> 'peace, tranquility' -- PEAK : <baršnu-> 'high point, peak' -- PENIS : <fravāxš-> 'stalk, branch, penis' -- PERCEIVE : <spas-̨ spašu-> (?) 'perceive' -- PERCEPTION : <vyāna-> 'insight, perception' -- PERFORM : <varəz-> 'work, perform' -- PERFORM : <verəz-> 'perform an action' -- PERFORM : <vərəz> 'do, make, perform' -- PERIOD : <yav-> 'duration, period, time of life' -- PERSON : <fravaši-> the immortal element in a person, personified as a class of deity -- PERSONIFIED : <fravaši-> the immortal element in a person, personified as a class of deity -- PIETY : <Armaiti-> name of a goddess = 'righteousness, devotion, piety' -- PIETY : <ārmaiti-> 'devotion, piety' -- PILGRIMAGE : <yāh-> 'pilgrimage, retribution' -- PLACE : <haθra> 'together, at the same place/time' -- PLAIN : <ciθrəm> 'manifest, clear, visible, plain' -- PLAN : <ratu-> 'judgement, model, plan' -- PLANT : <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant -- PLUNGE : <mru> 'drive, plunge, beat' -- POETIC : <mąθra-> 'formulaic verse, spell, poetic intention' -- POETICALLY : <saxvār-> 'invocation, poetically formulated vow' -- POINT : <baršnu-> 'high point, peak' -- POISON : <baēšaza-> 'remedy, poison' -- POISON : <banaya-> 'poison, make ill' -- POISON : <vaēšah-> 'poison' -- POLLUTION : <āhiti-> 'defilement, pollution -- POOR : <drigu-> 'needy, poor' -- PORTION : <ādāna-> 'portion, forging together, retaliation' -- POSSESSED : <gaoman-> 'possessed of milk' -- POSSESSED : <vadman-> (?) 'possessed of speech' -- POSSESSOR : <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' -- POSSIBILITY : <frajyāiṯi> 'life's possibility' -- POURUCHISTA : <Pourucistā-> 'Pouruchista' (?) -- POWER : <aogah-> 'power, strength' -- POWER : <haza-> 'power, violence, oppression' -- POWER : <saošyant-> 'giving power; savior (?)' -- POWER : <xraθwa-> 'power, will, insight' -- POWER : <xšaθra-> 'power' -- POWERFUL : <amavant-> 'strong, powerful, vigorous' -- POWERFUL : <īšā-xšaθri> 'powerful' -- POWERFUL : <sūra-> 'strong, powerful' -- POWERLESS : <anaēša-> 'powerless' -- POWERLESS : <dafšnya-> 'powerless' -- PRAISE : <carəkərəθra-> '(hymns of) praise' -- PRAISE : <staota-> 'hymn, song of praise' -- PRAISE : <stu> 'praise, laud, extol, celebrate' -- PRAISE : <stūiti-> 'song of praise, prayer' -- PRAISE : <vahma-> 'glorification, praise' -- PRAISE : <vahmaya-> 'worthy of praise' -- PRAISE : <vanta-> 'praise, homage' -- PRAISED : <stavana-> 'praising, being praised' -- PRAISING : <stavana-> 'praising, being praised' -- PRAYER : <stūiti-> 'song of praise, prayer' -- PRESSING : <havana-> 'pressing stone' -- PRESSURE : <hūiti-> 'pressure' -- PRIVATIVE : <a-> (privative) -- PRIZE : <mīzda-> 'wages, prize' -- PROCLAIM : <saŋh> 'announce, proclaim' -- PRODUCTIVE : <vərəzyah-> 'working, productive' -- PROFIT : <haŋhuš-> 'profit, harvest' -- PROFITABLE : <hušə̄na-> 'profitable' -- PROGENY : <frazanti-> 'progeny, offspring' -- PROHIBITION : <mā> used to express prohibition -- PROPHECY : <vafu-> 'prophecy, teaching, solemn words' -- PROPULSION : <āzhuš-> 'propulsion implement' -- PROSPERITY : <frāidi-> 'growth, prosperity' -- PROSPERITY : <spayaθra-> 'atonement, prosperity' -- PROSPERITY : <vasəiti-> 'liberty, prosperity' -- PROTECTION : <sar-> 'protection, alliance' -- PROVIDER : <rāda-> 'provider' -- PROVIDER : <vaēda-> 'provider' -- PUNISHMENT : <kaēnā-> 'atonement, punishment' -- PURE : <sūca-> 'light, pure, clear' -- PUT : <dā-> 'give, put' -- QUESTION : <frasā-> 'question, inquiry' -- RADIANCE : <rai-> 'radiance, wealth, splendor' -- RAGE : <darəs-> 'wantoness, rage, fury' -- RAIN : <vāra-> 'rain' -- READILY : <fraorəṯ> 'readily' -- REAL : <haiθya-> 'true, real' -- REALM : <dahyav-> 'country, region, realm' -- RECOGNITION : <xšnā-> 'recognition' (?) -- REDUCTION : <narəpi-> 'reduction, absence' -- REGION : <dahyav-> 'country, region, realm' -- RELIABLE : <bāδa> 'true, reliable' -- RELIGION : <kəvi-> 'title: adherent to the daevic religion' (?) -- RELINQUISH : <zā> 'abandon, relinquish' -- REMAIN : <stā> 'stand, stay, remain' -- REMEDY : <baēšaza-> 'remedy, poison' -- REMEMBERING : <mairišṯa-> 'knowing/remembering best' -- REQUEST : <zava-> 'call, request' -- RESPECT : <aiwi> 'toward, with respect to' -- RESPECT : <paiti> 'near, toward, with respect to' -- RETALIATION : <ādāna-> 'portion, forging together, retaliation' -- RETRIBUTION : <yāh-> 'pilgrimage, retribution' -- REVERENCE : <naman-> 'reverence' -- REVERSAL : <ā> (conveys sense of reversal with verbs of motion) -- RHETORICALLY : <vaȳxana-> 'assembly-speaking, rhetorically skilled' -- RICHES : <āyapta-> 'riches, bounty, boon, spoils' -- RIGHT : <ərəš-> 'right, correct, true' -- RIGHTEOUSNESS : <Armaiti-> name of a goddess = 'righteousness, devotion, piety' -- RISE : <ar> 'rise' -- RITUAL : <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant -- ROAD : <paθ-> 'path, road' -- ROB : <miθ> 'rob of' -- ROOT : <varšak-> 'root, tree' -- RUIN : <dvafša-> 'distress, ruin, pain, anguish' -- RUIN : <marək-> 'kill, destroy, bring ruin' -- RULE : <huxšaθra-> 'good rule' -- RULE : <urvāta-> 'rule, order, commandment' -- RULING : <xšaya> 'ruling' -- RUNNER : <aurvant-> 'swift, runner, steed' -- RUSH : <dvar> 'rush together' -- RUSH : <raēθa-> 'rush upon, mix with' -- SACRED : <spənta-> 'beneficent, holy, sacred' -- SACRIFICE : <barəsman-> grass bundle used in the Indo-Iranian sacrifice -- SACRIFICE : <īšti-> 'sacrifice' -- SACRIFICE : <yasna-> 'sacrifice, offering, hymn' -- SACRIFICE : <yaz> 'sacrifice, offer' -- SACRIFICE : <yesnya-> 'sacrifice, worship' -- SAFETY : <hušiti-> 'good dwelling, comfort, safety' -- SALVATION : <sava-> 'benefit, salvation' -- SAME : <haθra> 'together, at the same place/time' -- SATISFY : <xsnu> 'satisfy' -- SAVIOR : <saošyant-> 'giving power; savior (?)' -- SAY : <mrū> 'speak, say' -- SAY : <vak> 'say, speak, declare' -- SAYING : <uxδa-> 'word, saying' -- SCREAM : <xruš> 'scream, howl' -- SEE : <darəsata-> 'visible, beautiful to see' -- SEE : <humązdra-> 'careful, good to see' -- SEE : <vaēna-> 'see, observe, look' -- SEE : <vid> 'see, know, obtain' -- SEEM : <sand> 'show, seem' -- SELF : <urvan-> 'soul, self' -- SELF : <xva-> 'self' -- SEND : <(hapax) krd> 'send' (?) -- SENSE : <ā> (conveys sense of reversal with verbs of motion) -- SENSE : <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense -- SET : <šava-> 'drive forth, set in motion' -- SHACKLE : <dərəz-> 'shackle' -- SHAPE : <tas> 'carve, create, fashion, shape' -- SHAPE : <θwarōz> 'carve, fashion, shape, create' -- SHAPER : <tašar-> 'carver, fashioner, shaper, creator' -- SHINE : <band-> 'shine' (?) -- SHINING : <fəraša-> 'shining' -- SHOW : <sand> 'show, seem' -- SIN : <aēnah-> 'sin' -- SINCE : <hyat> 'as, since, because' -- SKILLED : <vaȳxana-> 'assembly-speaking, rhetorically skilled' -- SKILLFUL : <dan̨hah-> 'skillful' -- SLAY : <jan> 'smite, slay, destroy' -- SLAYER : <gan-> 'slayer' -- SLAYING : <ganya-> 'slaying, killing, destroying' -- SLEEP : <xvafna-> 'sleep, dream' -- SMELL : <baoiδi-> 'smell' -- SMITE : <gan> 'smite, strike' -- SMITE : <jan> 'smite, slay, destroy' -- SO : <aṯ> 'then, but, and, so, thus' -- SO : <avant-> 'as much, so much, so long, such' -- SO : <aθā> 'so, thus, likewise' -- SO : <hyaṯ> 'if, so, when' -- SOLEMN : <vafu-> 'prophecy, teaching, solemn words' -- SONG : <staota-> 'hymn, song of praise' -- SONG : <stūiti-> 'song of praise, prayer' -- SOON : <mošu> 'soon' -- SORT : <sareδa-> 'kind, sort, species' -- SOUL : <urvan-> 'soul, self' -- SPACIOUS : <paθana-> 'spacious' -- SPEAK : <mrū> 'speak, say' -- SPEAK : <vak> 'say, speak, declare' -- SPECIES : <sareδa-> 'kind, sort, species' -- SPEECH : <vacah-> 'speech, word' -- SPEECH : <vadman-> (?) 'possessed of speech' -- SPEECH : <vaxəδra-> 'speech organ' -- SPELL : <mąθra-> 'formulaic verse, spell, poetic intention' -- SPIRIT : <ąnman-> 'spirit, breath' -- SPIRIT : <mainyu-> 'spirit' -- SPIRITUAL : <manahya-> 'spiritual' -- SPITAMA : <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) -- SPLENDOR : <rai-> 'radiance, wealth, splendor' -- SPOILS : <āyapta-> 'riches, bounty, boon, spoils' -- SPREAD-OUT : <stra-> 'spread-out' (?) -- SPROUT : <frasparak-> 'sprout' -- SPROUT : <raod> 'grow, sprout' -- STALK : <fravāxš-> 'stalk, branch, penis' -- STAND : <stā> 'stand, stay, remain' -- STAY : <stā> 'stand, stay, remain' -- STEED : <aurvant-> 'swift, runner, steed' -- STONE : <asan-> 'stone, heaven' -- STONE : <havana-> 'pressing stone' -- STRAIGHT : <erezu-> 'straight, just' -- STRAIGHT : <ərəzu-> 'straight' -- STRENGTH : <aogah-> 'power, strength' -- STRENGTH : <zāvar-> 'strength, vitality, vigor' -- STRETCHED : <ustana-> 'stretched forth' -- STRIKE : <gan> 'smite, strike' -- STRIKING : <nivāiti-> 'striking down' -- STRIVE : <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' -- STRIVE : <iš> 'strive, desire, arrive' -- STRONG : <amavant-> 'strong, powerful, vigorous' -- STRONG : <sūra-> 'strong, powerful' -- STRONG : <uγra-> 'strong' -- SUCCESSFUL : <āsna-> 'successful, effective' -- SUCH : <avant-> 'as much, so much, so long, such' -- SUN : <hvar-> 'sun' -- SUPERLATIVE : <-ista-> indicates superlative -- SUPPLICATE : <gad> 'ask, entreat, supplicate' -- SUPPORT : <barana-> 'carriage, support' -- SUPPORT : <carana-> 'moving, feet, support' -- SURPASS : <van> 'surpass, overcome' -- SWATHED : <vas> 'be clothed, swathed' -- SWEETNESS : <hudəma-> 'sweetness' -- SWIFT : <aurvant-> 'swift, runner, steed' -- SWIFT : <āsu-> 'swift' -- TEACHING : <sāsnā-> 'teaching' -- TEACHING : <sāxvan-> 'doctrine, teaching, instruction' -- TEACHING : <vafu-> 'prophecy, teaching, solemn words' -- TEAM : <hita-> 'team of horses' -- TELL : <ci> 'discriminate, tell apart' -- TEN-THOUSAND : <baēvara-> 'ten-thousand' -- THAT : <ava-> 'this, that' -- THAT : <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' -- THAT : <ta-> 'he, that, this' -- THEN : <adā> 'then, thereupon, thus' -- THEN : <aṯ> 'then, but, and, so, thus' -- THEN : <āaṯ> 'then, thereupon, therefore, and, but' -- THERE : <aθra> 'here, there' -- THEREFORE : <āaṯ> 'then, thereupon, therefore, and, but' -- THEREUPON : <adā> 'then, thereupon, thus' -- THEREUPON : <āaṯ> 'then, thereupon, therefore, and, but' -- THIGH : <haxti-> 'thigh' -- THING : <mazdāδa-> 'thing to be considered' -- THING : <vispa-> 'everyone/thing, all' -- THINK : <man> 'know, think' -- THIS : <a-> 'he, this' -- THIS : <ava-> 'this, that' -- THIS : <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' -- THIS : <ha-> '(s)he, this' -- THIS : <hva-> 'this' -- THIS : <ta-> 'he, that, this' -- THOUGHT : <cisti-> 'knowledge, thought' -- THOUSAND : <hazara-> 'thousand' -- THUS : <adā> 'then, thereupon, thus' -- THUS : <aṯ> 'then, but, and, so, thus' -- THUS : <aθā> 'so, thus, likewise' -- THUS : <iθā> 'thus' -- TIE : <hišāy-> 'bind, tie up' -- TIME : <haθra> 'together, at the same place/time' -- TIME : <yav-> 'duration, period, time of life' -- TITLE : <kəvi-> 'title: adherent to the daevic religion' (?) -- TOGETHER : <ādāna-> 'portion, forging together, retaliation' -- TOGETHER : <dab> 'fit together' (?) -- TOGETHER : <dvar> 'rush together' -- TOGETHER : <hadā> 'together with' -- TOGETHER : <ham> 'together' -- TOGETHER : <haθra> 'together, at the same place/time' -- TOGETHER : <hə̄m> 'together, with' -- TONGUE : <hizu-> 'tongue' -- TOWARD : <aipi> 'toward, approaching' -- TOWARD : <aiwi> 'toward, with respect to' -- TOWARD : <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' -- TOWARD : <fra> 'forward, toward' -- TOWARD : <paiti> 'near, toward, with respect to' -- TRANQUILITY : <rāman-> 'peace, tranquility' -- TREE : <varšak-> 'root, tree' -- TRUE : <bāδa> 'true, reliable' -- TRUE : <haiθya-> 'true, real' -- TRUE : <ərəš-> 'right, correct, true' -- TRUTH : <aša-> 'truth' -- TRUTH : <ašavan-> '(in accordance with) Truth' -- TRUTH : <ašavant-> 'follower of the Truth' -- TWIN : <yə̄ma-> 'twin' -- UNDERSTAND : <sac> 'learn, understand' -- UNITE : <yuj> 'join, unite, yoke' -- UP : <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' -- UP : <hišāy-> 'bind, tie up' -- UP : <upa> 'near, up on/to, etc.' -- UPON : <raēθa-> 'rush upon, mix with' -- USED : <barəsman-> grass bundle used in the Indo-Iranian sacrifice -- USED : <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant -- USED : <mā> used to express prohibition -- VERBS : <ā> (conveys sense of reversal with verbs of motion) -- VERILY : <cīṯ> 'indeed, verily, etc.' -- VERSE : <mąθra-> 'formulaic verse, spell, poetic intention' -- VICTORY : <vərəθra-> 'attack, victory' -- VIGOR : <zāvar-> 'strength, vitality, vigor' -- VIGOROUS : <amavant-> 'strong, powerful, vigorous' -- VIOLATION : <dəjit-> 'violation' (?) -- VIOLENCE : <haza-> 'power, violence, oppression' -- VIOLENCE : <rəma-> 'bloodlust, violence, chains' -- VIOLENCE : <təvis-> 'violence' -- VISHTASPA : <Vīštāspa-> 'Vishtaspa' -- VISIBLE : <ciθrəm> 'manifest, clear, visible, plain' -- VISIBLE : <darəsata-> 'visible, beautiful to see' -- VISION : <spaxšti-> 'vision' -- VISION : <xratu-> 'will, intention, vision' -- VITALITY : <drvatāt-> 'health, vitality' -- VITALITY : <zāvar-> 'strength, vitality, vigor' -- VOICE : <vāc-> 'voice' -- VOW : <saxvār-> 'invocation, poetically formulated vow' -- WAGES : <mīzda-> 'wages, prize' -- WANTONESS : <darəs-> 'wantoness, rage, fury' -- WAY : <kaθā> 'how, in what way' -- WE : <vaēm-> 'we' -- WEAK : <asura-> 'weak' -- WEAKENED : <zahya-> 'weakened' -- WEALTH : <rai-> 'radiance, wealth, splendor' -- WELL : <hu> 'well, good, beautiful' -- WELL-BEING : <xviti-> 'well-being, freedom of movement' -- WHAT : <ka-> 'who, what' -- WHAT : <kaθā> 'how, in what way' -- WHAT : <ya-> 'who, what, which' -- WHEN : <hyaṯ> 'if, so, when' -- WHEN : <kadā> 'when' -- WHEN : <yadā> 'when' -- WHEN : <yaṯ> 'when' -- WHEN : <yezī> 'as, because, when' -- WHERE : <ku> 'where' -- WHERE : <kudā> 'where' -- WHERE : <yaθra> 'where, in order to' -- WHICH : <ya-> 'who, what, which' -- WHO : <ka-> 'who, what' -- WHO : <ya-> 'who, what, which' -- WHOSE : <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant -- WICKED : <aka-> 'bad, evil, wicked' -- WIDE : <pouru-> 'wide' -- WIDE : <pərəθu-> 'wide, broad' -- WIDE : <varav-> 'wide, broad' -- WIDE : <vi> 'wide, apart' -- WILD : <aēšasa-> 'wild' -- WILL : <xratu-> 'will, intention, vision' -- WILL : <xraθwa-> 'power, will, insight' -- WIN : <zā> 'conquer, win, come in first' -- WIND : <vayu-> 'air, wind' (?) -- WISE : <mazda-> 'wise one' -- WISE : <mazdā-> 'wise' -- WISH : <vas> 'desire, wish' -- WOE : <vayoi> 'woe' -- WOMAN : <jə̄naya-> 'woman' -- WOMB : <barəθri-> 'mother, womb' -- WOOD : <drav-> 'wood' -- WORD : <uxδa-> 'word, saying' -- WORD : <vacah-> 'speech, word' -- WORDS : <vafu-> 'prophecy, teaching, solemn words' -- WORK : <varəz-> 'work, perform' -- WORKING : <vərəzyah-> 'working, productive' -- WORSHIP : <yesnya-> 'sacrifice, worship' -- WORTHY : <vahmaya-> 'worthy of praise' -- WORTHY : <xva> 'good, worthy' -- WRATH : <aēšma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' -- WRATH : <aēšəma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' -- WRONG-DOERS : <dužvarešnah-> 'wrong-doers' -- YELLOW : <zairi-> 'yellow' -- YOKE : <yuj> 'join, unite, yoke' -- YOU : <ha-> 'you' -- YOU : <tvə̄m-> 'you' -- YOU : <yūžəm-> 'you' -- YOU : <θwa> 'you' -- YOUNGEST : <yazu-> 'youngest' -- ZARATHUSTRA : <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) -- ZARATHUSTRA : <Zaraθuštra-> 'Zarathustra' -- ZARATHUSTRA : <zaraθuštri-> 'descendent of Zarathustra' (?) -- ZEAL : <ah> 'energy, zest, zeal' -- ZEAL : <spərəd-> 'zeal' -- ZEAL : <θwaxša-> 'zeal, care, nurture' -- ZEST : <ah> 'energy, zest, zeal' --