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Classical Armenian Online - Romanized

Armenian - Romanized: Base Form Dictionary

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

<Abgaros> Abgar -- <‘agoyn> most, very -- <azg> nation, people -- <azd> notice, advice; report, news; communication, announcement -- <azdem> I am efficacious, I affect -- <aznuakan> noble, of noble origin -- <axt> illness, disease -- <akanates> eyewitness -- <ał> salt -- [Pokorny 1. sal- :: sal, salt; brackish water]   -- <ałačʿankʿ> (pl.) supplication -- <ałandutʿiwn> deception -- <aławtʿkʿ> (pl.) prayers -- <Ałjnikʿ> (pl.) Aghjnik' -- <ałpʿabet> alphabet -- <ałkʿat> poor -- [Pokorny 1. leig-, and leik-, better oleig-, oleik- :: needy, miserable]   -- <am> year -- [Pokorny 3. sem- :: summer]   -- <amenabar> bountiful -- <amenayn> all, every -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <amenayn> everyone -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <ayl> but -- [Pokorny 1. al-, ol- :: beyond; other, alien]   -- <ayn> that, that over there -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <ayn> he, she, it -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <aynuhetew> thenceforth -- <aynpēs> likewise -- <aynpēs> so, thus -- <ays> this, this right here -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <ayspēs> so, thus, in this manner -- <ayr> man -- [Pokorny 1. ner(-t)-, aner-, əner-? :: vital force; man]   -- <Anan> Anan -- <and> there -- [Pokorny ant-s :: brow, front, anterior]   -- <andēn> there -- <andr> there, to there, thither -- <ankanim> I fall -- <anhamim> I am un-tasteful -- <anjn> person, soul, self -- <anun> name -- [Pokorny en(o)mn̥-, (o)nomn̥, nōmn̥ :: name]   -- <anpitan> futile, useless; base, common -- <ansastutʿiwn> disobedience; obstinacy -- <anti> from there -- <ancʿanem> trespass, break; insult -- <apa> but; then, afterwards, later -- <apakanem> I corrupt -- <Apahuneikʿ> (pl.) Apahunis -- <ašakert> student, disciple -- <ašxatutʿiwn> labor -- <ašxarh> land, realm -- <ašxarhahog> caring for the land, patriotic -- <aškarh> earth -- <aštanak> candle stick -- <asem> I say -- [Pokorny ēg̑-, ōg̑-, əg̑- :: to say, speak]   -- <asori> Assyrian, Syrian -- <Asori> Assyrian, Syrians -- <Astuac> God -- <aṙ> to, toward (a person); beside; in the time of; in addition to -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <aṙaǰi> before, earlier -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <aṙaǰi> before, in front of -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <aṙaǰin> first -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <aṙakʿem> I send -- <aṙnem> I do, make -- <aṙołǰut\iwn> health -- <argelum> I hinder, prohibit, deny -- [Pokorny areq- :: to lock, guard, protect]   -- <ard> now; so, then -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <ardarew> truly -- <ardarutʿiwn> righteousness -- <ardeawkʿ> indeed, truly; perhaps -- <arewelkʿ> East, the Orient -- <arianoskʿ> (pl.) Arians -- <arkanem> I throw, cast, hurl -- <armukn> elbow -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <arnum> I take, accept -- [Pokorny 2. ar-, or er- :: to share, distribute]   -- <Artašēs> Artashes -- <artakʿs> out -- [Pokorny ag̑- :: to lead, drive, agitate]   -- <arkʿay> archon, leader, king -- <arkʿayutʿiwn> kingdom -- <awgnkanutʿiwn> cooperation; help, support -- <awgtakar> useful -- <awj> snake, serpent -- <awr> day -- [Pokorny āmer-, āmōr, āmr̥ :: day]   -- <bazum> much, many -- <baycʿ> but -- <ban> speech, word -- [Pokorny 2. bhā- :: to speak]   -- <banam> I open -- [Pokorny 1. bhā-, bhō-, bhə- :: to shine, glisten]   -- <barekamutʿiwn> friendship -- <bari> good -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <bdešx> consul -- <Betʿkʿubin> Bet Kubin -- <beran> mouth -- [Pokorny 3. bher- :: to bore, cut, scrape, use sharp tool]   -- <bžšik> physician, healer -- <bžškem> I cure -- <bžškutʿiwn> healing, cure -- <bnutʿiwn> nature -- <brdem> I fall, descend -- <gałt> in secret -- <gam> I come, go -- [Pokorny u̯ādh-, u̯ədh- :: to go, wade, stride, march]   -- <gitem> I know -- [Pokorny 2. u̯(e)id- :: to vide, see, wit, know]   -- <gir> writing, text -- <glxawor> notable, head -- <gnam> go, walk -- <gorc> work, deed -- [Pokorny 2. u̯erg̑-, u̯reg̑- :: to do, work, be effective]   -- <gumarem> I assemble -- <gtanem> I find, get, obtain -- [Pokorny 2. u̯(e)id- :: to vide, see, wit, know]   -- <grem> I write -- <gruan> bushel -- <Daniēl> Daniel -- <dašn> alliance, agreement, treaty -- <daṙnam> I return -- [Pokorny dhereg̑h-, dhr̥g̑h-nā- :: to turn, wind]   -- <dēp> fitting, suitable; happening, occuring -- <degerim> I am bothered, scattered, dispersed; I spend -- <deṙ> still -- <dnem> I put, place -- [Pokorny 2. dhē- :: to do, put, place, set]   -- <du> thou -- [Pokorny tū̆ :: thou, you]   -- <eawtʿn> seven -- <etʿe> that; if; or -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <elanem> I come, go up -- [Pokorny 6. el-, elə- : lā-, el-eu-(dh-) :: to go, move, drive]   -- <Elewtʿeroypōlis> Eleutheropolis -- <elkʿ> (pl.) exit, going -- <ełanim> I become -- [Pokorny 6. el-, elə- : lā-, el-eu-(dh-) :: to go, move, drive]   -- <ełbayr> brother -- [Pokorny bhrā́ter- :: brother, family member]   -- <em> I am -- [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   -- <episkopos> bishop -- <episkoposapet> archbishop -- <es> I -- [Pokorny eg̑-, eg̑(h)om, eg̑ō :: ego, I (pronoun)]   -- <eraneli> blessed -- <erani> happy -- <erēcʿ> elderly -- <ertʿam> I go, set out -- [Pokorny kēi- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <erkatʿ> iron -- <erkin> heaven -- <erkir> earth -- <erku> two -- <Erusałēm> Jerusalem -- <ertal> to go -- <ew> and; even, also, too -- [Pokorny epi, opi, pi :: at, near, epi-]   -- <ewetʿ> only, solely -- <ews> also, too -- <z‘> during; for; concerning; around, about -- <z‘> ... -- <žamanak> time -- <žaṙangem> I inherit -- <žołovem> I assemble, gather -- <žołovurd> multitude -- <zarmanam> I am astonished, marvel -- <zawak> child, offspring, progeny -- <zawrutʿiwn> miracle -- <zgacʿucʿanem> I inform -- <zi> for; that; because -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <ənd> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- [Pokorny ant-s :: brow, front, anterior]   -- <əndunim> I receive -- [Pokorny 1. ap-, more accurately əp- : ēp- :: to take, reach, grasp]   -- <ənkenum> I throw -- <tʿagawor> king -- <tʿagucʿanem> I hide, conceal -- <tʿakardapatem> I trap -- <tʿakʿčʿem> I hide -- <tʿeladrem> I instigate, incite; advise; hint, indicate; keep, store -- <tʿikunkʿ> (pl.) back, shoulder; help, auxiliary -- [Pokorny (s)teig- :: arm, shoulder; thigh, hip]   -- <tʿułtʿ> letter -- <tʿšnami> enemy, adversary -- <tʿšnamutʿiwn> enmity -- <i> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- [Pokorny eg̑hs, eg̑hz :: from, out of, ex-]   -- <i veray> upon, over -- [Pokorny upér, upéri :: over, above]   -- <ibr> like, as (if) -- <ibrew> when -- <imanam> I learn, understand -- [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   -- <imn> something, anything -- <inčʿ> some, any -- [Pokorny 1. ke :: (enclitic) and]   -- <inčʿ> thing -- [Pokorny 1. ke :: (enclitic) and]   -- <inkʿnin> he himself, he personally, the very one -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <isk> but, truly, and -- <ir> thing, affair -- <i⁰w> how -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <iwr> him-, her-, it-self -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <*ikʿ> something, anything -- <leaṙn> mountain -- [Pokorny k̑lei- :: to lean, incline, tip (over)]   -- <lezu> language, tongue -- [Pokorny dn̥g̑hū, dn̥g̑hu̯ā :: tongue]   -- <linim> I am, exist -- [Pokorny k̑lei- :: to lean, incline, tip (over)]   -- <liov> fully -- <loys> light -- [Pokorny leuk- :: to light, shine; see]   -- <lucanem> I light -- [Pokorny leuk- :: to light, shine; see]   -- <lusaworem> I shine -- <lur> hearing; news, report; voice -- [Pokorny 1. k̑leu-, k̑leu̯ə- : k̑lū- :: to hear, listen]   -- <luṙ> silent -- [Pokorny 1. k̑leu-, k̑leu̯ə- : k̑lū- :: to hear, listen]   -- <lsem> I hear -- [Pokorny 1. k̑leu-, k̑leu̯ə- : k̑lū- :: to hear, listen]   -- <xałał arar> peacemaker -- <xałałutʿiwn> peace -- <xawsim> I say, speak -- <xndrem> I search, seek -- <xotorutʿiwn> bend; deviation; straying -- <xorhurd> thought, plan; counsel -- <čʿ‘> not -- <čʿar> evil -- <čʿar> bad, evil -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <čʿaračʿar> terrible -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <čanačʿem> I know, understand -- <čašakem> I taste -- <čšmartapēs> truly -- <črag> candle -- <carawi> thirsting, thirsty -- <cnaw\t> chin, cheek -- <cunr> knee -- [Pokorny 1. g̑enu-, g̑neu- :: knee, joint]   -- <cupʿ> wave, rush; confustion, torment, angst -- <kazmutʿiwn> arrangement, order, pomp -- <katʿołikos> catholicos -- <kam> I am, exist -- [Pokorny gā-, gem- :: to come, go]   -- <kamim> I wish -- <kayserakan> imperial -- <kaysr> chief, emperor -- <kanxagoyn> before, earlier -- <kanxem> I rise up; rush, hurry; go first -- <kapankʿ> (pl.) chains -- <kapem> I bind -- <kaskacem> I doubt, suspect -- <katarem> I complete, carry out -- <kargem> arrange, order; manage well; apply, prescribe; place, appoint -- <karem> I can, am able -- <karcecʿucʿanem> I make believe, persuade -- <karcim> I believe, think -- <kełcaworem> I pretend, feign -- <kełcikʿ> (pl.) sham, pretense -- <kerakur> different dishes; food; meal -- <koxan> trampled -- <kočʿem> I call, name -- [Pokorny 2. get- :: to speak, talk]   -- <kristosaber> Christ-borne -- <Habel> Habel -- <hazarapetutʿiwn> chiliarch, commander -- <halacem> I persecute -- <hakaṙak> opposite -- <hambaw> news -- <hamberem> I suffer, endure -- [Pokorny 4. an-, anu, anō, nō :: on, along, over there]   -- <Hay> Armenian -- <Hayastan> Armenia -- <hayerēn> Armenian; Armenian (language) -- <hayr> father -- [Pokorny pətḗ(r), genitive pətr-és :: father]   -- <hangamankʿ> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature -- <handerj> with, together with -- <hasanem> I approach, arrive; obtain -- [Pokorny enek̑-, nek̑-, enk̑-, n̥k̑- :: to reach, obtain]   -- <harkim> I pay tribute -- <harcʿ> examination, question, questioning -- [Pokorny 4. perk̑-, prek̑-, pr̥k̑- :: to request, ask/pray for]   -- <harcʿanem> I ask -- [Pokorny 4. perk̑-, prek̑-, pr̥k̑- :: to request, ask/pray for]   -- <hawanim> I agree, concur, accede -- <hawanutʿiwn> accord -- <hawat> belief, religion -- <hawatam> I believe -- <hawatarim> confidant -- <hez> meek -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <heretikosutʿiwn> heresy -- <hiwandutʿiwn> disease, illness -- <hnar> means -- <hnarkʿ> means; inventiveness, skill; cure -- <hogi> soul, spirit -- [Pokorny 1. pū̆-, peu-, pou-, also phu- :: to blow (up)]   -- <hpem> I approach, near, touch -- <hraman> command, order -- <hramanatu> ordering, commanding; (subst.) commander -- <hrovartak> writing; order, decree -- <jeṙn> hand -- <mah> death -- [Pokorny 4. mer-, merə- :: to die]   -- <mahaber> death-bearing -- [Pokorny 4. mer-, merə- :: to die]   -- <manuk> child -- [Pokorny 4. men- :: to diminish; small]   -- <matčʿim> I approach -- [Pokorny mōd- : məd-, or mād- : məd- :: to meet, approach]   -- <margarē> prophet -- <mard> man -- [Pokorny 4. mer-, merə- :: to die]   -- <mardik> mankind, people -- [Pokorny 4. mer-, merə- :: to die]   -- <martʿ> possible -- <Marihab> Mar Ihab -- <Marinos> Marinus -- <marmin> body -- [Pokorny 5. mel- :: limb; to join]   -- <mēǰ> middle, midst -- [Pokorny medhi-, medhi̯o- :: middle]   -- <mec> great, big -- <mecamec> very great, grand, important -- <mecapaycaṙ> brilliant -- <mecapēs> greatly -- <mecaran> respect, honor -- <mecare> I honor, venerate -- <mereal> dead -- <merjawor> acquaintance -- <mi> (do) not -- [Pokorny 1. mē- :: (prohibitive particle: lest, that not)]   -- <mi> one -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <miabaneal> monk -- <miabanutʿiwn> unity -- <miamawr> only begotten, only -- <miayn> only, merely -- <miayn> only, solitary -- <miangamayn> all together; totally; at once -- <Miǰagetkʿ> Mesopotamia -- <minčʿ> until, up to, as far as; while, during -- <minčʿew> until, as far as -- <mxitʿarem> I comfort -- <yagim> I am satisfied, filled, fulfilled -- <yacim> I wander, roam -- <yałem> I salt -- <yaynžam> at that time, then -- <yankarc> unexpectedly, suddenly -- <yancʿawor> guilty, criminal -- <yaṙaǰ> before, earlier -- <yaṙaǰadrem> I propose, offer -- <yarnem> I rise up -- [Pokorny eg̑hs, eg̑hz :: from, out of, ex-]   -- <yarucʿanem> I raise -- <yawžarem> I stimulate, prompt; persuade -- <yawžarecʿucʿanem> I incite, drive -- <yōžarutʿiwn> inclination, predisposition, tendency -- <Yoyn> Greek -- <yoržam> when -- <‘n> that, that over there, the -- [Pokorny eno-, possibly e-no- : ono- : no- : -ne- :: that]   -- <‘n> the -- <na> he, she, it -- [Pokorny eno-, possibly e-no- : ono- : no- : -ne- :: that]   -- <naxanjim> I am jealous of -- <naxastełc> first-created -- <naxatem> I insult -- <nahapet> nahapet, senior prince -- <Nersēs> Nerses -- <niš> sign, mark -- <noyn> this, same, this same -- <noynpēs> thus, similarly, likewise -- <notaracʿi> notarizing -- <norogem> repair, renew -- <nšanagir> alphabet -- <nstim> I sit -- [Pokorny sed- :: to sit, set, settle]   -- <očʿ> no, not -- <ołormac> merciful -- <ołormutʿiwn> mercy -- <omn> some, certain -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <otn> foot -- [Pokorny 2. pē̆d-, pō̆d- :: foot]   -- <or> who, what, which -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <ordi> son -- [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <orpēs> just as, likewise -- <orpēs zi> so that -- <orpisi> what kind (of); that kind (of), such -- <uxt> agreement, covenant -- <usanim> I learn -- [Pokorny euk- :: to accustom oneself, be used to]   -- <usucʿanem> I teach -- <usti> from where, whence -- <urax> happy -- <uremn> somewhere; then, consequently; about, roughly; certainly -- <okʿ> someone, anyone -- <pałat> palace -- <Pałestinacʿik> Palestinian -- <pašarem> I ensnare, catch -- <patahem> I occur, befall -- <patasxani> answer -- <patčaṙ> basis, cause, reason -- <patmem> I report, tell -- <patuēr> command, order -- <patuiran> commandment -- <patuirem> I command, order -- <patrastakan> ready, willing, predisposed -- <paṙaworem> I glorify -- <parapecʿucʿanem> I devote myself to -- <pargewakan> granted, sent -- <parsawem> I criticize, blame -- <Parskʿ> (pl.) the Persians -- <pitoy> need -- <‘s> this, this here, the -- [Pokorny k̑o-, k̑e-, with the particle k̑e, k̑(e)i-, k̑(i)i̯o- :: this; here]   -- <Šamšagran> Shamshagram -- <šurǰ> around -- <šukʿ> pomp -- <sak> on account of, because of -- <Sahak> Sahak -- <sastik> severe, grievous -- [Pokorny k̑ās-, k̑əs- :: to teach, show the way]   -- <satanay> Satan -- <satrap> satrap -- <sgawor> sorrowful -- <semiar> stenographer -- <sirt> heart -- [Pokorny k̑ered- : k̑erd-, k̑ērd-, k̑r̥d-, k̑red- :: heart]   -- <sut> falsely -- <surb> holy, blessed -- [Pokorny 2. k̑eu- :: to shine, be bright]   -- <stipem> I push, urge -- [Pokorny stē̆ib(h)-, stī̆b(h)-, stē̆ip-, stī̆p- :: stick, pole, stake; stiff]   -- <Storgews> Storgius -- <stunganem> I disobey, am disobedient -- <skʿančʿelagorcutʿiwn> miracle -- <Vahrič> Vahrich -- <Vałēs> Valens -- <vałvałaki> quickly, soon -- <vasn> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- [Pokorny u̯ek̑- :: to want, wish]   -- <varj> reward -- <vnas> harm -- <vnasakar> harmful -- <vnasakarutʿiwn> harm, damage -- <vnasem> I harm -- <Vṙamšapuh> Vramshapuh -- <tam> I give; permit, let -- [Pokorny dō- : də-, also dō-u- : dəu- : du- :: to give, donate]   -- <tanim> I take -- <tasn> ten -- [Pokorny dek̑m̥, dek̑m̥-t, dek̑u- :: ten, decade]   -- <tesanem> I see -- [Pokorny 1. dek̑- :: to take]   -- <tohm> dynasty, tribe -- <tun> house -- [Pokorny dem-, demə- :: to build, timber; house, domicile]   -- <tunk> shrub, plant -- <trtamakan> painful -- <cʿasumn> rage, anger -- <cʿaw> pain -- <cʿncam> I rejoice -- <cʿucʿanem> I show -- <pʿaṙkʿ> (pl.) glory, majesty -- <pʿiwłakē> prison -- <Pʿiwnikecʿi> Phoenician -- <pʿoytʿ> hurry; eagerness; worry; interest -- <pʿorj> attempt, test, experiment; experience -- <pʿutʿam> I hasten, make haste -- <pʿrkičʿ> savior -- <pʿrkutʿiwn> salvation -- <kʿałakʿ> city -- <kʿałcʿnum> I hunger -- <kʿan> than -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <kʿanzi> because -- <kʿnnutʿiwn> examination, test; investigation, search; study -- <Kʿristos> Christ --

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