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Latvian: Base Form Dictionary

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

<acs> eye -- [Pokorny ok- :: to see, ogle; eye]   -- <aizbēgt, aizbēgu, aizbēgu> to flee -- [Pokorny bheg- :: to flee, run away]   -- <aizbraukt, aizbraucu, aizbraucu> to leave -- [Pokorny bhreu-k̑- :: to strike, throw]   -- <aizvien> all the time, the whole time -- [Pokorny g̑hō :: behind; towards]   -- <ap> around, by, near, about -- [Pokorny epi, opi, pi :: at, near, epi-]   -- <apjozt, apjožu, apjozu> to gird (round) -- [Pokorny i̯ō[u]s- : i̯ūs- :: belt; to gird]   -- <apkalpot, apkalpoju, apkalpoju> serve -- <apkampt, apkampju, apkampu> to embrace -- [Pokorny kap- :: to cop, grab, grasp; have?]   -- <apmierināt, apmierinu, apmierināju> to satisfy, calm down -- [Pokorny 7. mēi- : mōi- : mī- :: mild, soft]   -- <apsegt, apsedzu, apsedzu> to cover -- [Pokorny 2. seg-, nasalized seng- :: to attach, tack on]   -- <apvārdot, apvārdoju, apvārdoju> to charm -- [Pokorny 6. u̯er- :: to speak, talk formally]   -- <ar> with, together, and -- [Pokorny 4. ar, er, or?, r̥ :: now, therefore; (interrogative particle)]   -- <arvien> all the time, the whole time -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <atloks> collar -- [Pokorny lenk- :: to bend]   -- <atstāt, atstāju, atstāju> leave, depart, abandon -- [Pokorny stā- : stə- :: to stand]   -- <atšļūkt, atšļūcu, atšļūcu> to slip down -- [Pokorny (s)leug-, (s)leuk- :: to swallow]   -- <augsts> high, chief -- [Pokorny au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug- :: to augment, increase, magnify]   -- <austrums> east -- [Pokorny au̯es- :: to shine]   -- <balināt, balinu, balināju> to bleach -- [Pokorny 1. bhel-, Balto-Slavic also bhelə- :: glittering white]   -- <balti> white -- [Pokorny 1. bhel-, Balto-Slavic also bhelə- :: glittering white]   -- <balts> white -- [Pokorny 1. bhel-, Balto-Slavic also bhelə- :: glittering white]   -- <baznīca> church -- <bet> but, yet, however -- [Pokorny 1. b(h)e, and b(h)eg̑h :: beside, outside, without]   -- <Bethlehem> Bethlehem -- <bērns> child -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <bieza> thick -- [Pokorny bheng̑h-, bhn̥g̑h-, adj. bhn̥g̑hú-s :: fat, thick, dense]   -- <bikses> trousers -- <Birkenbaums> Birkenbaums -- <bite> bee -- [Pokorny bhei- :: bee (insect)]   -- <būt, esmu, biju> to be -- [Pokorny bheu-, bheu̯ə-, bhu̯ā-, bhu̯ē- : bhō̆u- : bhū- :: to be, exist; grow, prosper]   -- <caur> through -- [Pokorny 6. skēu(-t)- :: to cut, scratch, separate]   -- <cieti> tightly -- <cilvēks> person, human being -- <debess> heaven, sky -- [Pokorny 2. enebh- : nebh-, embh-, m̥bh- :: wet, damp; cloud, nimbus; water]   -- <dievins> God -- [Pokorny 1. dei-, dei̯ə-, dī-, di̯ā- :: to shine, glitter; day, sun; god, deity]   -- <dievs> god -- [Pokorny 1. dei-, dei̯ə-, dī-, di̯ā- :: to shine, glitter; day, sun; god, deity]   -- <dilt, dilstu, dilu> decrease, wane, dwindle -- [Pokorny 3. del-, dol-, delə- :: to split, divide]   -- <dūlāgs> smoke stick -- [Pokorny 4. dheu-, dheu̯ə-, presumably dhu̯ē-, compare suffixes dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s- :: to blow, dissipate, fly about like dust, etc.]   -- <dūms> smoke -- [Pokorny 4. dheu-, dheu̯ə-, presumably dhu̯ē-, compare suffixes dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s- :: to blow, dissipate, fly about like dust, etc.]   -- <dzimt, dzimstu, dzimu> to be born -- [Pokorny gā-, gem- :: to come, go]   -- <dzirdēt, dzirdu, dzirdēju> to hear -- [Pokorny 4. ger(ə)- :: to praise, congratulate, raise one's voice]   -- <es> I -- [Pokorny eg̑-, eg̑(h)om, eg̑ō :: ego, I (pronoun)]   -- <ēna> shadow -- [Pokorny 4. ā̆i- :: to burn, shine]   -- <gads> year -- [Pokorny ghedh-, ghodh- :: to join, unite, gather, make a bond]   -- <galotne> top, summit -- [Pokorny 1. gel- :: to stab; pain, death, quell]   -- <gandrīz> almost, nearly, all but -- [Pokorny 1. ghen- :: to swell, abound]   -- <garām> past, by -- <garens> longish -- <garš> spirit -- [Pokorny gher- :: warm, hot]   -- <gotiņa> little cow -- [Pokorny gou- :: cow, ox, gaur]   -- <gribēt, gribu, gribēju> to want -- [Pokorny ghreib- :: to grip, grab]   -- <Grīntāls> Grintals -- <gudrais> wise man -- <ģīmis> face -- <Herods> Herod -- <iekš> in -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <ilgi> long, for a long time -- [Pokorny 5. del- :: long]   -- <Israēlis> Israel -- <izklausīt, izklausu, izklausīju> to inquire, ask -- [Pokorny 1. k̑leu-, k̑leu̯ə- : k̑lū- :: to hear, listen]   -- <izmaukt, izmaucu, izmaucu> hollowed out, carved from -- [Pokorny 2. meug-, meuk- :: to slip, slide; meek]   -- <izsabijāties, izsabijājos, izsabijājos> to be frightened -- [Pokorny bhōi- : bhəi- : bhī-, bhii̯ə- :: to fear, be afraid]   -- <izžāvēt, izžāvēju, izžāvēju> dry out -- <ja> if -- <jaudāt, jaudāju, jaudāju> be able, can -- [Pokorny 4. i̯eu- :: to separate, hold apart]   -- <jauna> young, new -- [Pokorny 3. i̯eu- :: young]   -- <Jeruzāleme> Jerusalem -- <Jēzus> Jesus -- <jo> because -- <jūds> Jew -- <Jūds> Judah -- <jūnijs> June -- <ka> that -- [Pokorny 2. kai :: and]   -- <kad> when -- [Pokorny de-, do- :: I-deictic; here]   -- <kaltēt, kaltēju, kaltēju> to dry -- [Pokorny 3. (s)kel- :: to parch, dessicate, dry out]   -- <kas> which -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <kas> that -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <katrs> each, every -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <kažoks> fur coat -- <kā> as, like -- [Pokorny 2. kai :: and]   -- <kāda> someone, anyone -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <kāja> foot -- <Kārlēns> Charlie -- <kārts> pole -- [Pokorny 4. (s)ker-, (s)kerə-, (s)krē- :: to cut, shear, score, scribe]   -- <kodīt,kodu, kodīju> bite repeatedly -- [Pokorny 2. ken-, kenə-, keni-, kenu- :: to rub, scrape, scratch off; ashes]   -- <kokle> kokle, traditional music instrument -- [Pokorny kan- :: to sing, chant, sound]   -- <koks> tree, wood -- <krekls> shirt -- [Pokorny 1. krek- :: to hit]   -- <Kristus> Christ -- <kungs> lord, master -- <kur> where -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <kustēties, kustos, kustējos> move -- <kustēties, kustos, kustējos> to move around, work -- <ķēniņš> king -- <labs> good -- [Pokorny labh- :: to grab, hold, seize]   -- <laiks> time, period -- [Pokorny 2. leik- :: to bend]   -- <laiks> time -- [Pokorny 2. leik- :: to bend]   -- <laist, laižu, laidu> to release -- [Pokorny leid- :: to play, joke]   -- <laišanās> departing -- [Pokorny leid- :: to play, joke]   -- <latvietis> Latvian -- <lēni> slow -- [Pokorny 3. lē(i)- :: to weaken, leave behind; feeble]   -- <liels> large -- <liels> big -- [Pokorny 2. lei- :: to dissipate, disappear; thin, weak]   -- <liepa> linden tree -- <līdzināt, līdzinu, līdzināju> to be similar to -- [Pokorny 2. lē̆ig-, līg- :: form, appearance; like, similar]   -- <līdzīgs> similar, equal to -- [Pokorny 2. lē̆ig-, līg- :: form, appearance; like, similar]   -- <ļaudis> people -- [Pokorny 1. leudh- :: to grow up; free; people]   -- <mans> my -- [Pokorny 1. me- :: me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)]   -- <maza> little -- <mācītājs> pastor -- <mākonītis> little cloud -- [Pokorny 1. mā̆k- :: wet, damp; to soak]   -- <mesties, metos, metos> set in -- [Pokorny 3. mē-, m-e-t- :: to measure]   -- <mēnesis> month -- [Pokorny mēnōt, genitive mēneses, from which mēnes-, mēns-, mēs-, mēn- :: month; moon]   -- <miesa> flesh, body -- [Pokorny mēmso-, mē(m)s-ro- :: meat, flesh]   -- <mīdīt, mīdu, mīdīju> to tread, trample -- <mīlēt, mīlu, mīlēju> love -- [Pokorny 7. mēi- : mōi- : mī- :: mild, soft]   -- <muldēt, muldu, muldēju> to babble, rave -- [Pokorny 2. mel- :: to deceive]   -- <nabags> poor, needy -- <nakts> night -- [Pokorny nek-(t-), nok-t-s :: night]   -- <nākt, nāku, nācu> to come -- [Pokorny enek̑-, nek̑-, enk̑-, n̥k̑- :: to reach, obtain]   -- <ne> not -- [Pokorny 1. nĕ, nē, nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   -- <neviena> nobody, no one, not a single -- [Pokorny 1. nĕ, nē, nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   -- <no> from -- [Pokorny 4. an-, anu, anō, nō :: on, along, over there]   -- <nogāzties, nogāžos, nogāzos> to tumble down -- <nogrimt, nogrimu, nogrimu> to sink -- [Pokorny grem- :: to be damp; to sink]   -- <nolaisties, nolaižos, nolaidos> to descend -- [Pokorny leid- :: to play, joke]   -- <nozust, nozūdu, nozudu> to disappear -- [Pokorny 2. g̑heu-, g̑heu-d- :: to die, disappear, get away]   -- <padarīt, padaru, padaŗiju> to do, make -- [Pokorny derə-, drā- :: to work]   -- <padoties, padodos, padevos> surrender, succumb -- [Pokorny dō- : də-, also dō-u- : dəu- : du- :: to give, donate]   -- <pakāpties, pakāpjos, pakāpos> to step up -- <pakula> coarse linen -- [Pokorny 3. kel-, kelə-, klā-, extended klād- :: to hit, hew, cut down]   -- <palaist, palaižu, palaidu> to let go, release -- [Pokorny leid- :: to play, joke]   -- <palikt, palieku, paliku> remain, become -- [Pokorny lenk- :: to bend]   -- <pamazām> gradually, little by little -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <pamirkšķināt, pamirkšķinu, pamirkšķināju> blink -- [Pokorny 2. mer- :: to flicker, shimmer]   -- <pat> even -- [Pokorny poti-s :: host, husband, lord, master, owner]   -- <patikt, patīku, patiku> to like -- [Pokorny 2. tek- :: to reach, stretch out (hand) for]   -- <pats> himself -- [Pokorny poti-s :: host, husband, lord, master, owner]   -- <pār> over -- <piedurkne> sleeve -- [Pokorny epi, opi, pi :: at, near, epi-]   -- <piedzimt, piedzimstu, piedzimu> to be born -- [Pokorny gā-, gem- :: to come, go]   -- <pielūgt, pielūdzu, pielūdzu> to worship -- [Pokorny 1. leugh- :: to lie, belie, prevaricate]   -- <plaga> flag -- <pravietis> prophet -- <priedīte> pine -- <priesteris> priest -- <ragavas> sled, sleigh -- <rakstīt, rakstu, rakstīju> to write -- <raksts> text, writing -- <redzēt, redzu, redzēju> to see -- [Pokorny 2. reg- :: to see]   -- <rīcība> at someone's disposal -- <rīkoties, rīkojos, rīkojos> to busy one's self, act, behave -- <roka> hand -- [Pokorny 3f. u̯er-, u̯er-k- :: to bend, turn, wind]   -- <runāties, runājos, runājos> to talk to one's self -- <saaicināt, saaicinu, saaicināju> to invite -- [Pokorny aik- :: to call to]   -- <sacīt, saku, sacīju> to say -- <saime> family -- [Pokorny 1. k̑ei- :: to lie, recline; camp, home]   -- <saprast, saprotu, sapratu> to understand -- [Pokorny pret-, prō̆t- :: to understand]   -- <sarkanais> the red -- [Pokorny 3. ser-, sor- :: red]   -- <saule> sun, sunlight, sunshine -- [Pokorny sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- :: Sol, sun]   -- <sava> his -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <sava> one's -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <savs> his -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <sākt, sāku, sāku> begin -- [Pokorny (s)kek-, skeg- :: to jump, spring, move quickly; shake]   -- <seja> face -- [Pokorny sk̑āi-, sk̑əi- : sk̑ī- :: to shine/shimmer dully; shadow]   -- <sencis> ancestor -- <siksna> belt -- [Pokorny 1. k̑ik- :: belt, strap, thong]   -- <skanīga> sonorous -- [Pokorny kan- :: to sing, chant, sound]   -- <skatīties, skatos, skatījos> to look, stare -- [Pokorny skēt- : skət- :: to jump, spring]   -- <skatīties, skatos, skatījos> look at, gaze,stare -- [Pokorny skēt- : skət- :: to jump, spring]   -- <skats> look, sight, view -- [Pokorny skēt- : skət- :: to jump, spring]   -- <Skrastiņš> Skrastins -- <smieties, smejos, smējos> to laugh -- [Pokorny 1. (s)mei-, smeu- :: to smile]   -- <spietošana> swarming -- [Pokorny 3. sp(h)ē(i)-, spī-, and sphē- : sphə- :: to fatten, prosper, succeed, etc.]   -- <stabiņš> little pillar -- [Pokorny steb(h)-, and stēb(h)- : stəbh-, nasalized stemb(h)-, step-, also stēp-?, nasalized stemp-, nominal stəbho-s, stemb(h)ro-s, stomb(h)o-s :: stump, post, pillar; to support, etc.]   -- <starp> between, among -- [Pokorny 3. ter-, terə-, and teri-, trēi-, trī-, also teru- : treu- :: to bore, drill, rub, thresh]   -- <stāvēt, stāvu, stāvēju> to stand -- [Pokorny stā- : stə- :: to stand]   -- <stāvs> stature, figure, frame -- [Pokorny stā- : stə- :: to stand]   -- <stīvs> stiff -- <šausmīgs> terrible, horrible, awful -- <šļīcene> hose -- <tad> then, after that -- <taisīt, taisu, taisīju> to make -- <taisīties, taisos, taisījos> to prepare one's self -- <tas, tā> that -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <tā> so, thus -- <tāpēc> therefore, because -- <trepītes> step ladder -- <tu> you -- <tur> there -- <turētājs> holder -- [Pokorny 2. tu̯er- : tur-, tu̯erə- :: to grab, hold]   -- <tuvoties, tuvojos, tuvojos> approach -- <tuvoties, tuvojos, tuvojos> to approach -- <tvaikonis> steamboat -- [Pokorny tēu-, təu-, teu̯ə-, tu̯ō-, tū̆- :: to swell, intumesce]   -- <un> and -- <uz> on, for -- [Pokorny ū̆d- :: out, away, up(wards)]   -- <uz> on, upon -- [Pokorny ū̆d- :: out, away, up(wards)]   -- <uzacs> eyebrow -- [Pokorny ok- :: to see, ogle; eye]   -- <uzlaist, uzlaižu, uzlaidu> to set on -- [Pokorny leid- :: to play, joke]   -- <ūdens> water -- [Pokorny 9. au̯(e)-, au̯ed-, au̯er- :: to wet, flow, sprinkle; water, river, etc.]   -- <vai> or -- <vairāk> more, increasingly -- <valdīt, valdu, valdīju> to lead, rule -- [Pokorny u̯al-, u̯al-d(h)- :: to prevail, be strong]   -- <valdnieks> governor, leader -- [Pokorny u̯al-, u̯al-d(h)- :: to prevail, be strong]   -- <vaļā> open -- <varbūt> perhaps, maybe, possibly -- <vārds> word, name -- [Pokorny 6. u̯er- :: to speak, talk formally]   -- <vecais> the old -- <vecs> old -- <vectēvs> grandfather -- [Pokorny tata-, and similarly tē̆ta- :: daddy (nursery word)]   -- <vecums> age -- <vēl> still, yet -- [Pokorny 7. u̯el-, u̯elə-, u̯lē- :: to turn, wind; round, voluble]   -- <vienlīdzīgi> equally -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <viens> one, alone -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <vieta> place -- [Pokorny 3. u̯ei-, u̯eiə- : u̯ī- :: to wish, pursue, go for, reach towards; strong, violent]   -- <viņš> he -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <visi> everybody, everyone -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   -- <viss> all -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   -- <viss> all, everything -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   -- <Zaļga> Zalga -- <zem> under, beneath -- [Pokorny g̑hðem-, g̑hðom-, genitive-ablative g̑h(ð)m-és :: earth, ground, soil, humus]   -- <zeme> land, country -- [Pokorny g̑hðem-, g̑hðom-, genitive-ablative g̑h(ð)m-és :: earth, ground, soil, humus]   -- <zibināt, zibinu, zibināju> to flash -- <zvaigzne> star -- [Pokorny g̑hu̯oig- :: to shine; star]   -- <zvejnieks> fisherman --