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Old Persian: Master Glossary

This Master Glossary page lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique word form that appears in lesson texts and, for each word, its unique glosses. In addition to the gloss information, sans contextual translation, links are provided to every appearance, in every numbered lesson, of the word/gloss in question. With this index one may perform a quick "word look-up" and, in addition, study how words are used in context by clicking on their links.


āha - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <ah> 'be' āha - verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative active <ah> 'be' āhatā - verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative middle <ah> 'be' āham - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <ah> 'be' āhy - verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <ah> 'be' aita - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <aita-> 'he, this' aitā - demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural feminine <aita-> 'he, this' aitā - demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural feminine <aita-> 'he, this' aitamaiy - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <aita-> 'he, this' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' aivam - adjective; accusative singular masculine <aiva-> 'one' Auramazdā - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' Auramazdātay - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <tuvam-> 'you' Auramazdām - proper name; accusative singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' Auramazdāmaiy - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' + enclitic personal pronoun; accusative singular <adam> 'I' Auramazdāha - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' Auramazdāhā - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' Auramazdahā - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' akariya - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative passive <kar> 'do, make' akunauš - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <kar> 'do, make' akunava - verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative middle <kar> 'do, make' akunavam - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <kar> 'do, make' agarbāyatā - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative causative middle <grab> 'seize, grab' ajanam - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' atar - preposition; <atar> 'within, among' atarsa - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <tars> 'fear, be afraid' aθaham - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <θah> 'speak, say, declare' adā - verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative active <dā> 'put, make, create' adānā - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle <xšnā> 'learn, know' adāraya - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle causative <dar> 'hold, support' adataiy - adverb; <ada> 'then' + enclitic personal pronoun; genitive singular <tuvam-> 'you' adam - personal pronoun; nominative singular <adam> 'I' adamšim - personal pronoun; nominative singular <adam> 'I' + enclitic pronoun; accusative singular feminine <ši-> 'she, this' adaršnauš - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <dars> 'dare' adīnam - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <dī> 'take, seize' adurujiya - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative middle <drug-> 'lie, deceive' aniyā - adjective; nominative plural feminine <aniya-> 'other' aniyāuvā - adjective; locative plural feminine <aniya-> 'other' aniyāha - adjective; nominative plural masculine <aniya-> 'other' aniyašca - adjective; nominative singular neuter <aniya-> 'other' + conjunction; <ca> 'and, but' anušiyā - noun; nominative plural masculine <anušiya-> 'follower, ally' apagaudaya - preposition; <apa> 'away' + verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <gud> 'hide' apagaudayāhy - preposition; <apa> 'away' + verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive causative active <gud> 'hide' apara - adjective; nominative singular masculine <apara-> 'later, after' aparam - adverb; <aparam> 'after' aparsam - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' abara - verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' abara - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <bar> 'bear, carry' abaram - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' abava - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <bu> 'be, become' abavam - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <bu> 'be, become' abiy - preposition; <abiy> 'to, toward, against' amāxam - personal pronoun; genitive plural <adam> 'I' amariyatā - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <mar> 'die' amiy - verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <ah> 'be' ayauda - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' ayadaiy - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative middle <yad> 'revere, worship' ayadiya - verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative passive <yad> 'revere, worship' Arakadriš - geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Arakadri-> a mountain in Persia arasam - verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <ar> 'move toward' arika - adjective; nominative singular masculine <arika-> 'treacherous, evil, hostile' ariya - adjective; nominative singular masculine <ariya-> 'Aryan' ariyaciça - adjective; <ariya-> 'Aryan' + noun; nominative singular masculine <ciça-> 'seed, lineage' artācā - noun; instrumental singular neuter <arta-> 'Truth' + conjunction; <ca> 'and, but' artāvā - adjective; nominative singular masculine <artāvan-> 'blessed, righteous' arštām - noun; accusative singular feminine <arštā-> 'righteousness, Truth' arštiš - noun; nominative singular feminine <aršti-> 'spear, weapon' ava - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' ava - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' ava - preposition; <ava> 'away, down' avā - relative pronoun; nominative plural feminine <ava-> 'this, that' avā - adverb; <avā> 'thus, as' avāja - verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' avājanam - verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' avājaniyā - verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular present optative active <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' avaina - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <vaina-> 'see' avaiy - demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine <ava-> 'this, that' avaišām - demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine <ava-> 'this, that' avajata - verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' avaθā - adverb; <avaθa> 'thus, then' avadā - adverb; <avadā> 'then, there' avadaša - adverb; <avadā> 'then, there' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular masculine <ša-> 'he, this' avadašim - adverb; <avadā> 'then, there' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ša-> 'he, this' avanā - demonstrative pronoun; instrumental singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' avam - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' avam - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ava-> 'this, that' avahyā - demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine <ava-> 'this, that' avahyarādiy - demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine <ava-> 'this, that' + adverb; <rādiy> 'on account of' ašiyava - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <šiyu> 'set out, go' astiy - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <ah> 'be' asmānam - noun; accusative singular masculine <asman-> 'sky' azdā - adverb; <azdā> 'known' ahatiy - verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <ah> 'be' ahaniy - verb; 1st person singular present subjunctive active <ah> 'be' ahyāyā - demonstrative pronoun; locative singular feminine <a-> 'this' I - Roman numeral; <I> 'one' IX - Roman numeral; <IX> 'nine' idā - adverb; <idā> 'here' ima - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <ima-> 'he, this' imām - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ima-> 'he, this' imām - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine <ima-> 'he, this' utā - conjunction; <utā> 'and' utātaiy - conjunctive particle; <utā> 'and' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <tuvam-> 'you' utāmaiy - conjunctive particle; <utā> 'and' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' utašim - conjunctive particle; <utā> 'and' + enclitic pronoun; accusative singular feminine <ši-> 'she, this' udapatatā - verbal prefix; <ud> 'up' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <pat> 'fly, fall' upariy - adverb; <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' upariyāyam - adverb; <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <i> 'go' upastām - noun; accusative singular feminine <upastā-> 'aid, support' ufraštādiy - adverb; <u> 'well, good' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' + emphatic particle; <diy> (used for emphasis) ufraštam - adverb; <u> 'well, good' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' ubartam - prefix; <u> 'well, good' + adverb; <bartam> 'well-born' uvāmaršiyuš - adjective; nominative singular masculine <uvāmaršiyu-> 'self-inflicted death' - particle; <kā> (denotes generalization) kāma - noun; nominative singular masculine <kāma-> 'wish, desire' kāra - noun; nominative singular masculine <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' kāram - noun; accusative singular masculine <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' kārašim - noun; nominative singular masculine <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ša-> 'he, this' kārahyā - noun; genitive singular masculine <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' kaufa - noun; nominative singular masculine <kaufa-> 'mountain' Kabūjiya - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Kambūjiya-> 'Cambyses' Kabūjiyā - proper name; ablative singular masculine <Kambūjiya-> 'Cambyses' Kabūjiyahyā - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Kambūjiya-> 'Cambyses' kamnaibiš - adjective; instrumental plural masculine <kamna-> 'few' kartam - past participle passive; nominative singular neuter <kar> 'do, make' kartam - past participle passive; accusative singular neuter <kar> 'do, make' kašciy - indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine <kašciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' Kūrauš - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Kūru-> 'Cyrus' X - Roman numeral; <X> 'ten' XIV - Roman numeral; <XIV> 'fourteen' xšāyaθiya - noun; nominative singular masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' xšāyaθiyā - noun; instrumental singular masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' xšāyaθiyānām - noun; genitive plural masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' xšāyaθiyam - noun; accusative singular masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' xšaçam - noun; accusative singular neuter <xšaça-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' xšaçamšim - noun; accusative singular neuter <xšaça-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ša-> 'he, this' Xšayāršā - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Xšayāršan-> 'Xerxes' xšnāsātiy - verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <xšnā> 'learn, know' xšnāsāhy - verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <xšnā> 'learn, know' xsāyaθiya - noun; nominative singular masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' gāθavā - noun; locative singular feminine <gāθu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' gāθum - noun; accusative singular feminine <gāθu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' Gaumāta - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Gaumāta-> 'Gaumata' Gaumātam - proper name; accusative singular masculine <Gaumāta-> 'Gaumata' Garmapadahya - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July gastā - noun; ablative singular neuter <gasta-> 'evil, harm' caxriyā - verb; 3rd person singular perfect optative causative active <kar> 'do, make' ciyakaram - adverb; <cayakaram> 'how much, how many' cišciy - indefinite pronoun; accusative singular masculine <kašciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' jatā - noun; nominative singular masculine <jatar-> 'smiter' jadiyāmiy - verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <jad> 'pray, ask' jīva - present active particle; nominative singular masculine <jiva-> 'living' jīvā - noun; nominative singular feminine <jīvā-> 'life' taumā - noun; nominative singular feminine <taumā-> 'family' taumāyā - noun; genitive singular feminine <taumā-> 'family' tunuvatam - noun; accusative singular masculine <tunuvat-> 'possessing power' tuva - pronoun; nominative singular <tuvam-> 'you' tuvam - personal pronoun; nominative singular masculine <tuvam-> 'you' tya - relative pronoun; <tya-> 'who, which; that' tya - relative conjunction; accusative singular neuter <tya-> '(so/in order) that' tya - relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' tya - relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' tyā - relative pronoun; nominative plural feminine <tya-> 'who, which; that' tyaiy - demonstrative pronoun; instrumental plural masculine <tya-> 'he, this, that' tyaiy - relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' tyaiy - relative pronoun; accusative plural masculine <tya-> 'who, which; that' tyaiy - relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine <tya-> 'who, which; that' tyaišaiy - relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine <tya-> 'who, which; that' + enclitic pronoun; genitive singular masculine <sa-> 'he, this' tyam - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <tya-> 'he, this, that' tyašām - relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine <ša-> 'he, this' θātiy - verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <θah> 'speak, say, declare' θātiy - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <θah> 'speak, say, declare' θāhy - verb; 2nd person singular present indicative active <θah> 'speak, say, declare' θakatā - adjective; nominative plural neuter <θakatay-> 'past' θarda - noun; genitive singular feminine <θard-> 'autumn, year' θastanaiy - infinitive; <θah> 'speak, say, declare' θuvām - personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine <tuvam-> 'you' dātā - noun; accusative plural neuter <dāta-> 'law' Dārayavaum - proper name; accusative singular masculine <Dārayavahu-> 'Darius' Dārayavauš - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Dārayavahu-> 'Darius' daivā - noun; accusative plural masculine <daiva-> 'daiva' daivadānam - noun; <daiva-> 'daiva' + noun; accusative singular neuter <dāna-> 'offering' dauštā - noun; nominative singular masculine <dauštar-> 'friend' dadātuv - verb; 3rd person singular present imperative active <dā> 'give, take' dargam - adverb; <dargam> 'long' daršam - adverb; <daršam> 'greatly, mightily, steadfastly' dahyāum - noun; accusative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' dahyāuš - noun; nominative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' dahyāušmaiy - noun; nominative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' + personal pronoun; genitive singular masculine <adam> 'I' dahyāva - noun; nominative plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' dahyāva - noun; accusative plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' dahyāvam - noun; accusative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' dahyauvā - noun; locative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' dahyūnām - noun; genitive plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' dahyušuvā - noun; locative plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' dītam - past participle passive; accusative singular neuter <dā> 'give, take' dīdiy - verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <di> 'see, look' didā - noun; nominative singular feminine <didā-> 'fortress, wall' dipim - noun; accusative singular feminine <dipi-> 'inscription' dūraiapiy - adverb; <dūra> 'far' + enclitic particle; <apiy> emphatic particle dūraiy - adverb; <dūraiy> 'afar, far away' dūrayapiy - adverb; <dūra> 'far' + enclitic particle; <apiy> emphatic particle duruxtam - adjective; accusative singular neuter <duruxta-> 'false' duruvā - adjective; nominative singular feminine <duruva-> 'durable, stable, firm, secure' duškartam - adverb; <duš> 'difficult, bad, evil' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <kar> 'do, make' drauga - noun; nominative singular masculine <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' draugā - noun; ablative singular masculine <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' draugam - noun; accusative singular masculine <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' draujana - adjective; nominative singular masculine <draujana-> 'deceitful, follower of the Lie' nāma - adverb; <nāma> 'by name, named, called' nāmā - adverb; <nāma> 'by name, named, called' naibam - adjective; accusative singular neuter <naiba-> 'beautiful, pious' naimaiy - negative particle; <naiy> 'not' + enclitic personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' naiy - negative particle; <naiy> 'not' nīšādayam - verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 1st person singular present indicative active causative <had> 'sit' nīštāya - verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <šta> 'sit, set, place' nipištā - verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + past participle passive; accusative plural feminine <paiθ> 'inscribe, engrave' niyašādayam - verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 1st person singular present imperfect indicative active causative <had> 'sit' niyaštāya - verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <šta> 'sit, set, place' Nisāya - geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Nisāya-> 'Nisaya' nūram - adverb; <nūram> 'now' pātuv - verb; 3rd person singular present imperative active <pā> 'protect' pārsa - adjective; nominative singular masculine <pārsa-> 'Persian' Pārsa - geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Pārsa-> 'Persia' Pārsā - geographic name; ablative singular masculine <Pārsa-> 'Persia' Pārsaiy - geographic name; locative singular masculine <Pārsa-> 'Persia' pārsahyā - adjective; genitive singular masculine <pārsa-> 'Persian' Paišiyāuvādāyā - geographic name; ablative singular feminine <Paišiyāuvādā-> 'Paishiyauvada' patikarā - noun; accusative plural masculine <patikara-> 'picture, carved/incised likeness' patipayauvā - prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <pā> 'protect' patiparsāhy - prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <parsa-> 'examine, read' patiyāvahyaiy - preposition; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + denominative; 1st person singular imperfect middle <avahya-> 'ask for help' patiyajatā - verbal prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' patiyazbayam - verbal prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active causative <zbā-> 'call' parāgmatā - adverb; <parā> 'forth, forward, beyond' + past participle passive; nominative singular feminine <gam> 'go' paranam - adverb; <paranam> 'before' parīdiy - verbal prefix; <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular present imperative middle <ay> 'go' pariy - adverb; <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' pariyaita - verbal prefix; <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <ay> 'go' parūvnām - adjective; genitive plural masculine <paru-> 'much, many' paruvā - adjective; instrumental singular masculine <paruva-> 'before, previous' paruvam - adverb; <paruvam> 'previously, before' partaram - noun; accusative singular neuter <partara-> 'battle' parsā - verb; 2nd person singular present imperative <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' parsā - verb; 2nd person singular present optative active <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' pasāva - adverb; <pasāva> 'after(wards)' pasāvadim - adverb; <pasāva> 'after(wards)' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <di-> 'this' pasāvamaiy - adverb; <pasāva> 'after(wards)' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' puça - noun; nominative singular masculine <puça-> 'son' frābara - verbal prefix; <fra> 'to, toward, forth' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <bar> 'bear, carry' frābara - verbal prefix; <fra> 'to, toward, forth' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' fratamā - adjective; nominative plural masculine <fratama-> 'first, foremost' framātāram - noun; accusative singular masculine <framātar-> 'lord, master' Bāgayādaiš - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Bāgayādi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October baga - noun; nominative singular masculine <baga-> 'god' bagāha - noun; nominative plural masculine <baga-> 'god' baratiy - verb; 3rd person plural present indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' Bardiya - proper name; accusative singular masculine <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis Bardiya - proper name; nominative singular masculine <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis Bardiyam - proper name; accusative singular masculine <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis bavātiy - verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <bu> 'be, become' bavatiy - verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <ah> 'be' biyā - verb; 2nd person singular present optative active <bu> 'be, become' biyā - verb; 3rd person singular present optative active <bu> 'be, become' būmim - noun; accusative singular feminine <būmi-> 'earth' būmiyā - noun; locative singular feminine <būmi-> 'earth' brātā - noun; nominative singular masculine <brātar-> 'brother' brazmaniya - adjective; nominative singular masculine <brazmaniya-> 'reverent' - injunctive particle; <mā> (expresses prohibition) mātya - injunctive particle; <mā> (expresses prohibition) + relative conjunction; <tya-> '(so/in order) that' mātyamām - injunctive particle; <mā> (expresses prohibition) + relative conjunction; accusative singular neuter <tya-> '(so/in order) that' + personal pronoun; accusative singular <adam> 'I' Māda - geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Māda-> 'Media' Mādaiy - geographic name; locative singular masculine <Māda-> 'Media' mām - personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine <adam> 'I' māhyā - noun; genitive singular masculine <māha-> 'month' magum - adjective; accusative singular masculine <magu-> 'Magian' maguš - adjective; nominative singular masculine <magu-> 'Magian' manā - personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' manā - personal pronoun; genitive singular masculine <adam> 'I' maniyāhaiy - verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive middle <man> 'think' maniyāhaiy - verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <man> 'think' maniyāhay - verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <man> 'think' marta - past participle passive; nominative singular masculine <mar> 'die' martiya - noun; nominative singular masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' martiyā - noun; nominative plural masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' martiyaibiš - noun; instrumental plural masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' martiyam - noun; accusative singular masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' martiyahyā - noun; genitive singular masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' Mudrāyam - geographic name; accusative singular masculine <Mudrāya-> 'Egypt' yātā - adverbial conjunction; <yātā> 'until, while, as long as' yaudatim - present participle active; accusative singular feminine <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' yaθā - adverbial conjunction; <yaθā> 'as, when, because' yadātya - adverb; <yadā> 'where' + demonstrative pronoun; <tya-> 'he, this, that' yadāyā - adverb; <yadā> 'where' + ; <tya-> (corrupt form) 'that' yadaišā - verb; 2nd person singular present optative middle <yad> 'revere, worship' yadataiy - verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <yad> 'revere, worship' yadipatiy - relative adverb; <yadiy> 'if, when' + adverb; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' yadimaniyāiy - relative adverb; <yadiy> 'if, when' + verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <man> 'think' yadiy - adverb; <yadiy> 'if, when' yadiyaiša - verb; 3rd person plural present imperative passive <yad> 'revere, worship' rādiy - adverb; <rādiy> 'on account of' raucabiš - noun; instrumental plural neuter <raucah-> 'day' ragam - adverb; <ranga-> 'speed, haste' vartaiyaiy - verb; 1st person singular present indicative causative middle <vart> 'turn' varnavatām - verb; 3rd person singular present imperative middle <var> active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince' vašnā - noun; instrumental singular masculine <vašna-> 'will, favor' vasiy - adverb; <vasiy> 'greatly, utterly' vazraka - adjective; nominative singular masculine <vazraka-> 'great' vazrakāyā - adjective; locative singular feminine <vazraka-> 'great' viθam - noun; accusative singular feminine <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' viθiyā - noun; instrumental singular feminine <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' viyakanam - verbal prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <kan> 'dig' Viyaxnahya - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March viyanāθaya - verbal prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; <nāθ> 'injure, rend' Vištāspahyā - proper name; genitive singular masculine <Vištāspa-> 'Hystaspes' visam - adjective; accusative singular masculine <visa-> 'all, every' visam - adjective; accusative singular neuter <visa-> 'all, every' vispazanānām - adjective; <vispa-> 'all, every' + noun; genitive plural masculine <zana-> 'man' šiyāta - adjective; nominative singular masculine <šiyāta-> 'happy' šiyātim - noun; accusative singular feminine <šiyati-> 'welfare, peace, happiness' škaurim - noun; accusative singular masculine <škauri-> 'weak' Sikayauvatiš - geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Sikayauvati-> 'Sikayauvati' zūra - noun; <zūra-> 'evil' zūrakara - noun; nominative singular masculine <zūrakara-> 'evil-doer' hauv - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hauv-> 'he, this' hauvam - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hauv-> 'he, this' haxāmanišiya - adjective; nominative singular masculine <haxāmanišiya-> 'Achaemenid' hacā - adposition; <hacā> 'from, out of' hatiy - verb; 3rd person plural present indicative active <ah> 'be' hadā - preposition; <hadā> 'with, together with' hadugām - noun; accusative singular feminine <hadugā-> 'record, statute' hamātā - adverb; <hama-> 'same' + noun; feminine singular nominative <mātar-> 'mother' hamataxšatā - prefix; <ham> 'together' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <taxš> 'be active, build, carve, make' hamapitā - adverb; <hama-> 'same' + noun; masculine singular nominative <pītar-> 'father' hamahyāya - adjective; genitive singular masculine <hama-> 'same' + demonstrative pronoun; locative singular feminine <a-> 'this' hamahyāyā - adjective; genitive singular masculine <hama-> 'same' + demonstrative pronoun; locative singular feminine <a-> 'this' hamiçiya - adjective; nominative singular masculine <hamiçiya-> 'rebellious' haruva - adjective; nominative singular masculine <haruva-> 'all' hašiyam - adjective; accusative singular neuter <hašiya-> 'true' hya - relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hya-> 'who, what, which' hyavā - relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hya-> 'who, what, which' + conjunctive particle; <vā> 'or'

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