Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ambhi, m̥bhi   'around, at both sides'

Semantic Field(s): Circle, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: imb- adv/prep/pfx about GED
Gaulish: amb- adv/prep/pfx about GED
Old English: bā, bū adj/pron.neut both GED
be, bi, bī adv/prep/pfx by, concerning RPN
bēgen adj/pron.du.masc both GED
ymbe, ymb- adv/prep/pfx at, around LRC
Middle English: alley n alley W7
ambidexter n double-dealer AHD
amblen vb to amble AHD
amis n amice W7
amphibena n amphisbaena AHD
amphitheatre n amphitheater AHD
amphora n amphora AHD
ba, bo adj/pron both CDC
be- pfx be- W7
bo adv too, as well MEV
both(e), boþ(e), bath(e), booth adj/pron both CDC/MEV/W7
by, bi, be(o) adv/prep by MEV/W7
preamble n preamble W7
English: alley n narrow backstreet AHD/W7
ambi- pfx around, on both sides AHD/W7
ambidextrous adj using either hand with equal ease AHD
ambient adj encompassing, surrounding on all sides AHD/W7
ambiguous adj unclear, doubtful, equivocal AHD
ambivalence n simultaneous attraction/repulsion AHD/W7
amble vb.intrans to stroll, saunter, walk slowly AHD/W7
ambsace n bad luck; snake eyes (dice) AHD/W7
ambulance n vehicle for treating the injured AHD/W7
ambulate vb.trans to move from place to place AHD/W7
ambulatory adj re: walking LRC
amice n liturgical vestment worn about neck/shoulders under alb AHD/W7
amph(i)- pfx around, on both sides AHD/W7
amphibian n amphibious organism AHD/W7
amphibious adj adapted to both land and water TLL
amphibole n hornblende AHD/W7
amphibrach n metrical foot: short/unstressed + long/stressed + short/unstressed syllables AHD/W7
amphimacer n metrical foot: long/stressed + short/unstressed + long/stressed syllables AHD/W7
amphimixis n germ cell union in sexual reproduction AHD/W7
amphioxus n lancelet AHD
amphisbaena n serpent with head at each end able to move in either direction (classical mythology) AHD
amphistylar adj having columns on opposite sides AHD
amphitheater n oval/circular space/building/arena overlooking stage/platform W7
amphithecium n outer cell layer of spore-containing moss capsule AHD
amphora n two-handled jar/vase with narrow neck AHD
amphoteric adj substance acting as both acid and base AHD/W7
amplexicaul adj with base/stipules clasping stem AHD
amputate vb.trans to prune, cut/lop off AHD
andante adj moderately slow (musical direction) AHD/W7
be- pfx [participial marker] AHD/W7
both adj/pron two, one and another AHD/W7
by prep at, through, next/near to AHD/W7
Bywater prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
funambulist n tightrope walker AHD/W7
ombudsman n one who investigates complaints and mediates settlements AHD
perambulate vb to stroll, traverse AHD/W7
preamble n opening statement AHD/W7
umlaut n change of vowel sound AHD/W7
British English: amphitheatre n amphitheater LRC
Scots English: baith adj/pron both CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: be, bi prep by ASD
bēde adj/pron both CDC
bēthe adj/pron both GED
umbe prep by, about ASD
Middle Dutch: bede adj/pron both ASD
Dutch: beide adj/pron both ASD
bij prep beside TLL
by prep by ASD
om prep after TLL
omdat conj because TLL
voorbij prep past, beyond TLL
Old Saxon: be, bi prep by ASD
bēþia, bēdea adj/pron both ASD/GED
bēþie adj/pron both CDC
umbi prep by, about ASD
Low German: beede adj/pron both ASD
Old High German: bēde, beide adj/pron both GED
bi, pi adv/prep by, concerning ASD/RPN
umbi, umpi prep/adv by, about ASD/GED
Middle High German: beide adj/pron both CDC
bi prep by ASD
German: Allee n.fem alley, parkway, avenue LRC
Ambivalenz n.fem ambivalence AHD
ambulant adj ambulatory LRC
Ambulanz n.fem ambulance, acute day ward LRC
Amphiteather n.fem amphitheater LRC
bei prep by ASD
beide adj/pron both ASD
bis prep until TLL
um prep at, about, around TLL
Umlaut n.masc umlaut W7
vorbei adv past, beyond TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bāðar, bæði adj/pron both ASD
bāðir adj/pron both GED
Icelandic: bāðar adj/pron.fem both CDC
bāðir adj/pron.masc both CDC
bæði, bāði adj/pron.neut both CDC
um(b) prep by, about ASD
Danish: baade adj/pron both ASD
forbi prep past, beyond TLL
om prep/conj in, at, about; whether TLL
Swedish: båda adj/pron both CDC
både adj/pron both ASD
förbi prep past, beyond TLL
om prep/conj in, at, about; if, whether TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: bai adj/pron.du both GED/RPN
bajōþs both CDC
bi prep by, concerning LRC
Latin: amb(i)- pfx around, on both sides GED
ambigo, ambigere vb to go round/about AHD/CLD
ambiguus adj ambiguous AHD
ambō pron.du both GED/RPN
ambulo, ambulāre, ambulatus vb to walk W7
amicio, amicīre, amicuī, amictus vb to wrap around W7
amictus, amictūs n.masc cloak, outer garment W7
amictus adj/vb.ptc clad, thrown around W7
amphisbaena n.fem amphisbaena W7
amphitheātrum n amphitheater AHD
amphora n amphora AHD
-bus dat/ [case ending] RPN
funambulus n.masc one who walks on a rope W7
perambulo, perambulare, perambulatus vb to walk through W7
Late Latin: praeambulus adj walking in front of W7
Medieval Latin: preambulum n.neut preamble W7
New Latin: Amphibia prop.n (class name for) amphibians AHD
Old French: alee n.fem path, alley W7
aler vb to go W7
ambes pron both W7
ambler vb to amble AHD
ambsace n.fem the lowest throw at dice, something worthless or unlucky W7
amit, amis n cloak, amice AHD
Middle French: allée n.fem path, alley W7
amit n.masc cloak, amice W7
préambule n.masc preamble, foreword W7
French: ambulance n.fem ambulance W7
ambulant adj walking, able to walk W7
Italian: andante vb.ptc going, current, moderately slow W7
andare vb to go W7
Old Prussian: abbai pron both GED
Lithuanian: abù pron both GED
Latvian: abi pron both GED
Old Church Slavonic: oba, obě, obě adj both LRC
oba pron both GED
Albanian: mbi prep on, onto IEW
Homeric Greek: ἀμφότερος pron both, each of two LRC
ἄμφω pron.du both GED
Greek: ἀμφί, ἀμφ- adv/prep/pfx around, on both sides GED
amphibios adj amphibious, living double life AHD
amphitheatron n amphitheater AHD
ἄμφω pron.du both RPN
-φ(ι) loc.sfx around, on both sides RPN
Sanskrit: abhí, abhi- adv/prep to, towards, about GED/RPN
ubhau pron.du both GED/RPN
-bhis [case ending] RPN
-bhyas dat/ [case ending] RPN
-bhyām inst/dat/abl.du [case ending] RPN
Tocharian B: ant-api pron both GED
Tocharian A: āmpi pron both GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
dat=dative (case)
du=dual (number)
fem=feminine (gender)
inst=instrumental (case)
loc=locative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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