Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 6. au̯-, au̯ed-   'to speak'

Semantic Field(s): to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: comedy n comedy W7
melodie n melody W7
tragedie n tragedy W7
English: comedy n humorous theatrical drama AHD/W7
epode n lyric poem with short verses succeeding long AHD/W7
hymnody n hymn singing AHD/W7
melody n tunefulness; sounds ordered musically AHD/W7
monody n ode sung by 1 voice (Greek tragedy) AHD/W7
ode n type of lyric poem AHD/W7
parody n literary imitation AHD/W7
rhapsody n epic poetry adapted for recitation AHD/W7
Theravada prop.n lit. doctrine of the elders (Buddhism) LRC
tragedy n tale of sublime downfall AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
Old High German: farwāzan vb to deny W7
worf n scythe handle W7
German: Komödie n.fem comedy LRC
Melodie n.fem melody LRC
ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
Parodie n.fem parody LRC
Tragödie n.fem tragedy LRC
North Germanic  
Danish: ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
Swedish: ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
Latin: comoedia n.fem comedy W7
epodos n.masc epode W7
parodia n.fem parody W7
tragoedia n.fem tragedy W7
Late Latin: hymnodia n.fem hymnody W7
melodia n.fem melody W7
oda, ode n ode, song, strophe CDC
Medieval Latin: monodia n.fem monody W7
Portuguese: oda n ode, song, strophe CDC
Spanish: oda n ode, song, strophe CDC
Old French: melodie n.fem melody W7
Middle French: comedie n.fem comedy W7
ode n.fem ode, song of praise W7
tragédie n.fem tragedy W7
Italian: oda n ode, song, strophe CDC
Homeric Greek: ἀείδω vb to sing LRC
Greek: ᾄδειν vb to sing CDC
audē n.fem voice W7
epōidos adj sung/said after W7
kōmōidia n.fem comedy W7
melōidia n.fem music, chanting, melody W7
monōidia n.fem monody, act of singing alone W7
monōidos adj singing alone W7
parōidia n.fem parody W7
rhapsōidia n.fem rhapsody: recitation of selections from epic poetry W7
tragōidia n.fem tragedy W7
hymnōidia n.fem hymnody W7
ᾠδή, ἀοιδή n ode, song, strophe CDC
Pali: theravāda n doctrine of the elders W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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