Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 8. au̯-, au̯ēi-   'to perceive, understand, be aware of'

Semantic Field(s): to Know, to Understand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: audience n audience W7
audit n audit W7
ob(b)eien, ob(b)eyen vb to obey CDC
oyez vb.imp oyez W7
English: aesthetic adj artistic, re: beauty AHD/W7
anesthesia n loss of sensation AHD/W7
audible adj (capable of being) heard AHD/W7
audience n act/state of hearing AHD/W7
audile n one whose mind favors auditory imagery AHD/W7
audio- pfx hearing AHD/W7
audit n hearing, audience AHD/OED
audit vb to verify account via scrutiny W7
audition n power/sense of hearing AHD/W7
auditor n one who hears/listens AHD/W7
auditorium n place where listeners sit AHD/W7
auditory adj re: hearing W7
obedient adj submissive to command/restraint CDC
obeisant adj respectful, submissive CDC
obey vb to harken, listen to; serve, be subject to CDC
oyez vb.imp attend! hear ye! (before court/public proclamation) AHD/W7
subaudition n act of intimating a thing expressed AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: ästhetisch adj aesthetic W7
Audienz n.fem audience LRC
auditiv adj auditory LRC
Latin: audientia n.fem hearing, listening, attention W7
audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum vb to hear LRC
auditio, auditionis n.fem hearing, listening W7
auditus, auditūs n.masc act of hearing W7
obædire, obedire vb to obey CDC
oboedio, oboedire vb to obey, listen to W7
-oedire vb to hear W7
Late Latin: audibilis adj audible W7
auditorius adj auditory CDC
obaudire vb to obey CDC
subaudio, subaudīre, subauditus vb to understand W7
subauditio, subauditionis n.fem understanding W7
Middle Latin: obedire vb to obey CDC
New Latin: aestheticus adj aesthetic, re: sense perception W7
anesthesia n.fem lack of feeling W7
Portuguese: audiencia n audience CDC
obedecer vb to obey CDC
obéir vb to obey CDC
ouvir vb to hear TLL
Spanish: audiencia n audience CDC
obedecer vb to obey CDC
oir vb to hear TLL
Old French: audience n audience CDC
obeir vb to obey W7
Anglo-French: oir vb to hear W7
oyez hear ye! W7
Middle French: audience n.fem audience W7
audition n.fem the act of hearing W7
French: audience n audience CDC
ouïr vb.arch to hear TLL
Italian: audienz(i)a n audience CDC
obbedire vb to obey CDC
udire vb to hear TLL
Old Church Slavonic: aviti, avl'jǫ, aviši vb.refl to reveal LRC
javiti, jav'jǫ, javiši vb to appear LRC
Greek: aisthanesthai vb to perceive W7
aisthēsis n.fem perception W7
aisthētikos adj of sense perception W7
anaisthēsia n.fem insensibility W7
Sanskrit: āvis adj evidently W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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