Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 9. au̯(e)-, au̯ed-, au̯er-   'to wet, flow, sprinkle; water, river, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): to Flow, Water, Brook, Stream, River


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: u(i)sce n water W7
Scots Gaelic: uisge n water W7
Old English: otor, ot(e)r n.masc otter ASD/W7
ūrig-feðera adj lit. dewey-feathered LRC
wæsce n.fem washing place ASD
wǣt adj wet W7
wǣtan vb.wk to wet, moisten ASD/W7
wæter n.neut water LRC
wascan, wæscan vb to wash ASD/W7
wāse n.fem ooze, slime; wash: marsh ASD
waðum n.masc wave, sea LRC
winter n.masc winter, (cold half of) year LRC
winter-cearig adj sorrowful, lit. winter-caring LRC
Winter-fylleþ prop.n October, lit. winter-fills (month) ASD
ȳð n.str.fem wave LRC
Middle English: aboundant adj abundant AHD
abounden vb to abound W7
diuretic adj diuretic W7
oter n otter W7
redounden vb to redound W7
surrounden vb to overflow W7
urine n urine W7
washen vb to wash W7
wat, we(e)t adj wet CDC
water, watre, wæter, weter n water CDC
weten vb to wet W7
winter, wynter n winter, (cold half of) year CDC
Ydra prop.n Hydra W7
English: abound vb.intrans to be present in great quantity/large numbers AHD/W7
abundant adj plentiful, abounding with AHD
anhydrous adj free from water, esp. water of crystallization AHD/W7
Bywater prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
clepsydra n water clock AHD/W7
diuretic adj tending to increase flow of urine AHD/W7
Entwash prop.n Rohan river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
enuresis n incontinence/involuntary discharge of urine AHD/W7
hydathode n plant epidermal structure for water exudation AHD/W7
hydatid n kind of larval tapeworm AHD/W7
Hydra prop.n many-headed water-serpent slain by Hercules AHD/W7
hydrant n faucet, fireplug, water pipe with valve AHD/W7
hydraulic adj re: water/liquid AHD/W7
hydrilla n (type of) submersed Old World plant AHD
hydr(o)- pfx water, liquid W7
hydrophobia n morbid fear of water W7
hydrous adj re: water AHD
Hydrus prop.n Water Snake (constellation) AHD
inundate vb.trans to overflow, cover with flood AHD/W7
kirschwasser n colorless cherry brandy AHD
Loudwater prop.n a.k.a. Bruinen River in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Midgewater prop.n marshes in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
natriuresis n excretion of excessive sodium in urine AHD
nutria n coypu: South American aquatic rodent AHD/W7
otter n aquatic fish-eating mammal related to minks/weasels AHD/W7
redound vb.intrans to overflow, become swollen AHD/W7
redundant adj superfluous, exceeding what is necessary/normal AHD/W7
surround vb.trans to encompass, enclose on all sides AHD/W7
undine n water nymph AHD/W7
undulate adj having wavy surface/margin/markings AHD/W7
undulate vb to fluctuate, form/move in waves AHD/W7
ureter n duct carrying urine from kidney to bladder/cloaca AHD/W7
urethra n canal carrying urine from bladder AHD/W7
uretic adj urinary, re: urine AHD
-uria n.sfx presence of (specified substance) in urine AHD/W7
urine n chief fluid excretory product of vertebrates AHD/W7
usquebaugh n whiskey AHD
utricle n small pouches/saccate parts of animal/plant body AHD/W7
vodka n unaged, colorless neutral spirit distilled liquor AHD/W7
wash n act of washing; bog, marsh, ground washed by sea/river W7
wash vb to lave, cleanse via water/liquid AHD/W7
water n liquid that falls from clouds as rain AHD/W7
wet, wet vb to make wet, cover/soak with water AHD/W7
wet adj moist; containing, consisting of, or covered/soaked with liquid (water) AHD/W7
Wetwang prop.n marshes a.k.a. Nindalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
whiskey n alcoholic liquor distilled from fermented grain AHD
winter n wet cold season between autumn/spring AHD/W7
Winterfilth prop.n Shire calendar's October in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Wintring prop.n Bree calendar's October in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wēt, weit adj wet, damp, moist ASD/CDC
weter n.neut water ASD/CDC
winter n.masc year, winter GED
Dutch: water n water CDC
winter n year, winter CDC
Old Saxon: ūðia n.fem wave ASD
watar n.neut water ASD/CDC
wintar n.masc year, winter GED
Old Low German: wascan vb to wash ASD
Middle Low German: water n water CDC
Low German: winter n year, winter CDC
Old High German: ottar, oter n otter ASD/W7
unda n.fem wave ASD
waskan, wascan vb to wash ASD/W7
wazzar n.neut water ASD/W7
wintar n.masc year, winter GED
Middle High German: wazzer n water CDC
winter n year, winter CDC
German: Hydra n.fem Hydra LRC
hydraulisch adj hydraulic LRC
Hydro- n.pfx hydro- LRC
Otter n.masc otter LRC
Urin n.masc urine LRC
Wasser n.neut water CDC
Winter n.masc winter LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: uintura years, winters GED
Old Norse: uðr n.fem wave LRC
vatn n.neut water; lake, river, waterway LRC
vātr adj wet W7
vetr n.masc year, winter LRC
Old Icelandic: vet(t)r, vittr n.masc year, winter CDC/GED
Icelandic: otr n otter ASD
unnr, uðr n.fem wave ASD
vaska vb to wash ASD
vatn n water CDC
vātr adj wet, damp, moist ASD/CDC
vetr n.masc winter ASD
væta vb to wet ASD
Danish: vaad adj wet CDC
vand n water CDC
vinter n year, winter CDC
Swedish: vatten n water CDC
vinter n year, winter CDC
våt adj wet CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: wato n water LRC
wintrus n.masc year, winter GED
Umbrian: utur n water LRC
Latin: abundo, abundāre vb to overflow W7
Aventinus, Aventini prop.n.masc Aventine (Hill, in Rome) LRC
clepsydra n.fem clepsydra W7
Hydra prop.n.fem Hydra W7
inundo, inundare, inundatus vb to flood W7
lutra n.fem otter W7
redundo, redundare vb to overflow W7
unda n.fem wave, water GED
undo, undare vb to wave, surge, undulate LRC
undula n.fem little wave W7
undulatus adj wavy W7
urina n.fem urine W7
utriculus n.masc utricle W7
Late Latin: diureticus adj that provokes urination W7
superrundo, superundāre vb to overflow W7
undula n.fem small wave W7
urethra n.fem urethra W7
New Latin: enuresis n.fem involuntary discharge of urine W7
Hydra n.fem (genus name) W7
undina n.fem elemental being in theory of Paracelsus inhabiting water W7
ureter n.masc duct from kidney to bladder W7
-uria sfx urination W7
Spanish: nutria n.fem otter W7
Old French: abondant adj abundant AHD
Middle French: abonder vb to abound W7
diurétique adj that provokes urination W7
redonder vb to overflow W7
suronder vb to overflow W7
urine n.fem urine W7
Old Prussian: unds n.masc water GED
wundan n.neut water GED
Lithuanian: vanduõ n.fem water GED
Latvian: ūdens n.masc water LRC
Old Church Slavonic: voda n.fem water LRC
Russian: voda n water W7
Albanian: ujë n water LRC
Homeric Greek: ὕδρος n.masc water-snake AHD/LS
Greek: anydros adj dry W7
diourein vb to urinate W7
diourētikos adj that provokes urination W7
enourein vb to urinate in, wet the bed W7
θησαυρός n.masc treasure LRC
klepsydra n.fem clepsydra W7
ourein vb to urinate W7
ourēthra n.fem urethra W7
ourētēr n.masc ureter W7
-ouria afx of urination W7
ouron n.neut urine W7
ὑδατ-, ὑδρ- pfx water CDC
hydatis, hydatid- n.fem watery cyst W7
ὕδρα prop.n.fem Hydra LRC
ὕδωρ n.neut water LRC
Hittite: wātar, wedenas n.neut water LRC
Armenian: get n water, river LRC
Avestan: vaiδi n watercourse LRC
Sanskrit: udan n water CDC
udnás n water LRC
unátti vb to flow, wet GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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