Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bharek-, or bherek-   'to farce, stuff full'

Semantic Field(s): Full


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: diafragma n diaphragm W7
farse n farce W7
farsen vb to farce W7
farsi n farcy W7
farsin n farcy W7
frequent adj frequent W7
English: diaphragm n body partition of muscle/connective tissue AHD/W7
farce n forcemeat, savory stuffing AHD/W7
farce vb.trans to stuff, fill up AHD/W7
farci adj stuffed (esp. with forcemeat) AHD/W7
farcy n glanders: disease esp. of horses AHD/W7
forcemeat n finely chopped highly seasoned meat/fish W7
frequent adj thronged; common, usual AHD/W7
infarct n area of tissue/organ necrosis due to circulation obstruction AHD/W7
phragmites n perennial marsh/riverside reed AHD
West Germanic  
German: Farce n.fem farce LRC
Infarkt n.masc infarct LRC
Latin: farcimen n.neut sausage W7
farcio, farcīre, farsus vb to farce W7
frequens, frequentis adj that occurs often W7
infarcio, infarcire, infarctus vb to stuff W7
Vulgar Latin: farsa vb.ptc.fem stuffed W7
Late Latin: farcimen n.neut cutaneous glanders W7
Middle French: farce n.fem theater play, funny song W7
farcin n.masc farcy, stuffing W7
farcir vb to put spices in chicken W7
fréquent adj that occurs often W7
French: farci vb.ptc stuffed W7
farcir vb to stuff W7
Greek: diaphragma n.neut barricade, enclosure, diaphragm W7
diaphrassein vb to barricade W7
phrassein vb to enclose W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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