Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. bhel-, chiefly with suffixes: bheləg̑-, bhelə-n-g̑-, bheleg̑-, bhl̥k̑-   'balk, beam, rafter'

Semantic Field(s): Beam


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Gaelic: balc n balk, ridge of earth between furrows ASD
Old English: balc n balk: ridge CDC
balca n.masc balk ASD
bolca n gangway CDC
Middle English: balk(e) n balk W7/CDC
balken vb to plow in ridges AHD
English: balcony n railed platform projecting from wall AHD/W7
balk n beam; bank, unplowed land ridge AHD/W7
balk vb to stop short, refuse to go AHD
debauch vb.trans to make disloyal AHD/W7
fulcrum n prop AHD/W7
phalange n finger bone AHD/W7
phalanx n heavily armed infantry in close/deep ranks/files AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: balka n balk CDC
Old Dutch: balke n balk CDC
Dutch: balk n.masc balk ASD
balkon n balcony TLL
Old Saxon: balko n.masc balk ASD
Middle Low German: balke n balk CDC
Low German: balke n corn loft CDC
Old High German: balcho, balko n.masc balk ASD
Middle High German: balke n.masc balk ASD
German: Balken n.masc balk LRC
Balkon n.masc balcony LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bálkr n.masc balk ASD
Icelandic: bālkr, bōlkr n balk: ridge CDC
bjālki n balk: beam CDC
Norwegian: balk, bolk n balk: beam, bar CDC
Danish: balk n balk: ridge, partition CDC
balkon n balcony TLL
bjälke n.masc balk: beam ASD
Swedish: balk n balk: beam, bar CDC
balkong n balcony TLL
bjelke n.masc balk ASD
bjälk n balk: beam CDC
Latin: fulcio, fulcīre vb to prop W7
fulcrum n.neut bedpost W7
phalanx, phalangis n.fem phalanx (Greek word) W7
Old French: desbauchier vb to scatter, roughhew (timber) W7
Middle French: debaucher vb to debauch, render immoral W7
French: balcon n balcony CDC
phalange n.fem phalange W7
Old Italian: balcone n balcony, scaffold AHD
Italian: balco n balk: beam CDC
balcone n.masc balcony W7
Homeric Greek: φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος n.fem phalanx, battle line LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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