Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dek̑- : dok̑-, dēk̑-   'to tear, rip to pieces'

Semantic Field(s): to Tear


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dūal n lock of hair W7
Old English: tægel n tail W7
Middle English: tache n tache W7
tagge n tag W7
tail n tail W7
tak n tack; clasp, fastener W7
English: tache n clasp, buckle AHD/W7
tack n short sharp nail, usu. with broad flat head AHD/W7
tag n tatter, loose piece of cloth AHD/W7
tail n appendage at rear end of animal body AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: tac n tack, sharp point W7
Dutch: tak n branch TLL
Old High German: zagal n tail W7
German: Zacke n tack, spike, prong LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: tagl n.neut (horse's) tail ASD
Norwegian: tagl n.masc horse-hair ASD
Swedish: tagel n.masc tail, hair of mane ASD
tagg n tack, barb, thorn W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: tagl n.neut tail, hair ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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