Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhē(i)-, also dh-ei-?   'to suck, suckle'

Semantic Field(s): to Suck, Suckle


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: denaid vb to suck RPN
díth vb.past.pass.ptc sucked RPN
Old English: delu n.fem teat, nipple GED
dēon vb to suck RPN
diend n suckling RPN
finol, finul, fynel, fenol n.masc fennel ASD
finugl, finu(g)le n.fem fennel ASD/W7
Middle English: effeminate adj effeminate W7
fecund adj fecund W7
felicite n felicity W7
femelle, female, femel n female W7
feminine adj feminine W7
fenel n fennel W7
fenugrek n fenugreek W7
filial adj filial W7
foun n fawn W7
infelicite n infelicity W7
English: affiliate n affiliated person/organization W7
affiliate vb to bring/receive into connection as branch/member AHD/W7
effeminate adj unmanly, having unsuitable feminine qualities AHD/W7
effete adj no longer fertile AHD/W7
endothelium n epithelium of mesoblastic origin AHD/W7
epithelium n membranous cellular tissue covering free surface/lining tube/cavity of animal body AHD/W7
fawn n young deer AHD/W7
fecund adj prolific/fruitful in offspring/vegetation AHD/W7
felicific adj causing/intended to cause happiness AHD/W7
felicitate adj made happy AHD/W7
felicity n happy AHD/W7
fellatio n oral stimulation of penis AHD/W7
female n sex that produces eggs/bears young AHD/W7
feme n wife, woman AHD
feminine adj re: female AHD/W7
fennel n perennial European herb AHD/W7
fenugreek n leguminous annual Asiatic herb AHD/W7
fetal adj re: fetus AHD/W7
feticide n act/instance of killing fetus AHD/W7
fetus n unborn/unhatched vertebrate AHD/W7
filial adj re: son/daughter AHD/W7
filiate vb to determine paternity judicially AHD
fils n son (vs. father with same given name) AHD
finoc(c)hio n sweet fennel AHD
infelicitous adj inappropriate in expression/application W7
infelicity n state/quality of being infelicitous AHD/W7
mesothelium n epithelium derived from mesoderm AHD/W7
sainfoin n Eurasian pink-flowered leguminous forage herb AHD/W7
superfetate vb to conceive again while pregnant AHD/CDC
theelin n estrone AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Low German: dīen, tīen vb to suckle GED
Low German: daiern vb to raise on milk GED/RPN
Old High German: fenachal, fenihil n fennel ASD
tāan, tāen vb to suckle GED/RPN
tila n.fem teat GED
Middle High German: venchel n.masc fennel ASD
German: Fenchel n.masc fennel ASD
Filiale n.fem branch, agency, chain store LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: dilkr n.str.masc young animal GED
Old Swedish: dīa vb to suckle GED
dæggia vb.wk to suckle GED/RPN
Swedish: del n teat GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: *daddjan vb.wk.I to suckle GED/RPN
Latin: effemino, effemināre, effeminavi, effeminatus vb to make effeminate W7
effetus adj tired (by excesses/from giving birth) W7
fecundus adj fertile, fruitful W7
felicitas, felicitatis n.fem happiness W7
felix, felicis adj happy W7
fello, fellare, fellavi, fellatus vb to suck W7
felō, felāre vb to suck, suckle RPN
femella n.fem.dim little girl W7
fēmina, fēminae n.fem female, woman LRC
femininus adj feminine W7
feniculum n.neut.dim fennel W7
fēnum n.neut hay AHD
fetus adj fruitful, pregnant W7
fetus n.masc brood, offspring; act of bearing young W7
fīlia n.fem daughter RPN
fīlius, fīlii n.masc son LRC
infelicitas n.fem infelicity W7
infelix, infelicis adj unhappy W7
Vulgar Latin: feto, fetonis n.masc offspring W7
Late Latin: felicito, felicitāre, felicatāvī, felicitatus vb to make happy W7
filialis adj filial W7
Medieval Latin: affiliō, affiliāre, affiliavi, affiliatus vb to adopt as son W7
New Latin: endothelium n.neut linings on inside of body W7
epithelium n.neut covering of inner mouth W7
fellatio, fellationis n.fem fellatio W7
fetus n.masc embryo W7
mesothelium n.neut epithelium lining body cavities W7
Portuguese: feno n hay TLL
filha n daughter TLL
filho n son TLL
Spanish: heno n hay TLL
hija n daughter TLL
hijo n son TLL
Anglo-French: feme n feme AHD
Middle French: faon n.masc animal young W7
fecond adj fertile W7
felicité adj felicity, happiness W7
femelle n.fem female, woman W7
feminin adj feminine W7
fenugrec n.masc fenugreek W7
feon n.masc animal young W7
sainfoin n.masc sainfoin W7
French: femme n woman TLL
fille n daughter TLL
fils n.masc son AHD
foin n hay TLL
sainfoin n.masc sainfoin (cultivated as cattle fodder) W7
Italian: fieno n hay TLL
figlia n daughter TLL
figlio n son TLL
finocchio n.masc fennel, finochio AHD
Old Prussian: dadan n milk RPN
Lithuanian: dėlė n leech GED
Latvian: dêju, dêt vb to suck GED/RPN
dẽle n leech GED
dēls n son RPN
dīle n suckling calf GED
Serbo-Croatian: dojka n breast RPN
dòjiti vb to suckle RPN
Old Church Slavonic: dojǫ, dojiti vb to suckle; to milk GED/RPN
děva n maiden, young girl RPN
děvica n.fem girl, virgin LRC
dětь n child GED/RPN
Albanian: dele n sheep GED
djathë n cheese RPN
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: θήνιον n milk RPN
Homeric Greek: θῆλυς adj female GED/RPN
Greek: θηλάζω vb to suckle RPN
θηλή n teat, nipple RPN
θῆσθαι vb to suckle RPN
Luwian: ti-i-ta-ni n.dat/loc breast, teat RPN
ti-ta-i-(im-)me-iš n mother RPN
Lycian: tideimi- n child, son RPN
Hittite: teta(n)-, tita(n) n breast, teat RPN
ti-ta-an-za vb.ptc sucking RPN
*titiya- vb to suckle RPN
Armenian: diem vb to suck GED/RPN
Avestan: -dāenuš n female animal GED
Ossetic: däïn vb to suck RPN
däyun vb to suck RPN
Sanskrit: dháyati vb to suck, drink GED/RPN
dhātrī́ n nurse RPN
dhāpáyate vb.caus to give suck, nourish RPN
dhā́yas- n nourishing, refreshing RPN
dhāyú-ḥ n voracious??? RPN
dhārúṣ vb.ptc sucking GED
dhenú-ḥ n milk RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
loc=locative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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