Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhei̯ə- : dhi̯ā- : dhī-   'to look, see, show'

Semantic Field(s): to Look, to See, to Show


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: theatre n theater W7
English: polysemous adj having multiple meanings AHD/W7
semantic adj re: semantics AHD/W7
semantics n meaning in language LRC
semaphore n apparatus for visual signaling AHD/W7
semasiology n study of semantics AHD/W7
sematic adj warning of danger AHD/W7
sememe n meaning expressed by morpheme AHD
semiology n science/study of signs AHD
semiotic adj re: semiotics AHD
semiotics n theory of signs/symbols AHD/W7
theater n place/building for dramatic performances W7
zazen n seated meditation AHD
Zen prop.n sect of Mahayana Buddhism AHD/W7
zen n religious meditation LRC
British English: theatre n theater LRC
West Germanic  
German: Theater n theater TLL
North Germanic  
Danish: teater n theater TLL
Swedish: teater n theater TLL
Latin: theātrum n.neut theater CLD
Late Latin: polysemus adj polysemous W7
Old French: theatre n theater LRC
Middle French: theatre n theater W7
Doric: σᾶμα n sign, mark, token RPN
Greek: θαυμάζω vb to wonder LRC
θεάομαι vb to gaze at LS
θέᾱτρον n theatre; place for seeing LS
θεωρέω vb to see, view LRC
θωμαστός adj wonderful LRC
polysēmos adj polysemous W7
sēma, sēmatos n.neut sign W7
sēmainein vb to mean, signify W7
sēmasia n.fem meaning W7
σημεῖον n.neut sign, miracle LRC
sēmeiousthai vb to interpret signs W7
sēmeiōtikos adj significant, observant of signs W7
Avestan: daēman- n eye RPN
dā(y)- vb to see RPN
Sanskrit: dī́dheti vb to think, reflect, perceive RPN
dhyāti vb to think, meditate W7
dhyā́yati vb to think, contemplate RPN
Pali: jhāna n zen, thinking W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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