Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ei-s-, ei-n-   'ice, frost'

Semantic Field(s): Ice, Frost


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: īs n.str.neut ice; (name for) I-rune GED
īs-ceald adj ice-cold LRC
īsig adj icy GED
Middle English: is n ice W7
English: ice n frozen water AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: īs n.neut ice ASD
Dutch: ijs n ice TLL
Middle Low German: īs n.str.neut ice GED
Old High German: īs n.str.neut ice GED
German: Eis n.neut ice ASD
eisig adj icy LRC
eiskalt adj ice-cold LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: *isa n ice; (name for) I-rune LRC
Old Norse: íss n.str.masc ice, icicle LRC
Icelandic: īss n.masc ice ASD
Danish: is n ice TLL
Swedish: is n ice TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: iiz n ice; (name for) I-rune GED
Lithuanian: ýnis n ice, frost GED
Old Church Slavonic: inej n snow flurry GED
Russian: inej- n ice, frost GED
Avestan: aēxa n ice, frost GED
isu- adj icy, cold GED
Ossetic: ix, yex n ice GED
Pamir: īš adj icy, cold GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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