Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ek̑u̯o-s   'horse'

Semantic Field(s): Horse (generic)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ech n horse LRC
Welsh: ebol n foal GED
Gaulish: epo- n.afx horse GED
Epona prop.n lit. horse-goddess GED
Old English: eoh n.str.masc horse; (name for) E-rune GED
ēored, ēorod n.neut cavalry band/troop, lit. horse-ride(rs) ASD
English: eohippus n small 4-toed Lower Eocene horse of N. America AHD/W7
Éomer prop.n Eastmark marshal/hero in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Éomund prop.n chief marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Éored prop.n cavalry unit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Éothain prop.n horse-thane in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Éothéod prop.n Eorl's descendants in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Éowyn prop.n Rohan shield-maiden heroine in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
equestrian adj re: horseback riding AHD/W7
equine adj re: horse AHD/W7
equitant adj overlapping transversely at base AHD/W7
equitation n riding on horseback AHD/W7
hippocampus n curved elongated ridge in lateral ventricle of brain AHD/W7
Hippocrene prop.n fountain on Mt. Helicon sacred to the Muses (Greek mythology) LRC
hippodrome n oval stadium for horse/chariot races AHD/W7
hippogriff n legendary animal, lit. horse-griffin AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: ehu- n.afx horse GED
North Germanic  
Runic: *ehwaz n horse; (name for) E-rune LRC
Old Icelandic: jōr n.str.masc horse GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: aíƕa- n horse LRC
*aiƕa-tundi n.fem bramble, prickly bush, lit. horse-thorn GED
Latin: equa n.fem mare GED
eques, equitis n.masc horseman, knight LRC
equester adj of a horseman W7
equinus adj of a horse W7
equito, equitare vb to ride on horseback W7
equus n.masc horse GED
hippo- pfx horse W7
Hippocrene n.fem Hippocrene W7
hippodromos n.masc hippodrome W7
New Latin: eohippus n.masc eohippus W7
hippocampus n.masc hippocampus W7
Middle French: hippodrome n.masc hippodrome W7
French: hippogriffe n.masc hippogriff W7
Italian: ippo- pfx horse W7
ippogrifo n.masc hippogriff W7
Lithuanian: ašvà n.fem mare GED
Mycenaean: ιθο n horse LRC
Greek: ἱππεύς n.masc horseman LRC
hippodromos n.masc hippodrome W7
hippokampos n.masc sea horse W7
Hippokrēnē prop.n.fem Hippocrene W7
ἵππος n.masc horse LRC
Luwian: á-sù-wa n horse LRC
Old Persian: asa- n.afx horse LRC
aspa- n.afx horse GED
Avestan: aspō, aspa- n/afx horse GED
Sanskrit: áśvas n horse GED
áśvā n mare GED
Tocharian B: yakwe n horse LRC
Tocharian A: yuk n horse LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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