Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. g̑hē-, g̑hēi-   'to lack, be empty; leave, go out'

Semantic Field(s): Empty, to Leave, Relinquish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: āgān vb to go W7
āncra n.masc hermit, anchorite ASD
forgān vb to pass by, forgo W7
gād, gǣd n.str.neut lack, want GED
gǣsne, gesne, gēsine adj barren, wanting, deprived of ASD/RPN
gān vb.anom to go, walk, move IEW
Middle English: ago adj/adv ago W7
agon vb to pass away W7
aire n heir MEV
algate adv in all ways, at any rate MEV
algatis adv continually MEV
anchorite, ancres n anchorite(s) MEV/W7
enheriten vb to inherit, make heir W7
forgon vb.anom to forgo W7
gait n gait W7
gangrel adj/n vagrant; vagabond OED
gate n gate W7
gon vb.anom to go W7
heir n heir W7
heritage n heritage W7
English: ago adj/adv gone by, before present time AHD/W7
anchorite n religious recluse, one who lives alone AHD/W7
-chore n.sfx plant distributed by some agency AHD/W7
choripetalous adj polypetalous AHD/W7
chorography n art of mapping/describing region/district AHD/W7
forego vb.anom to precede, go before AHD/W7
forgo vb.anom.trans to forsake AHD/W7
gait n manner of walking/moving on foot AHD/W7
gangrel adj/n term re: Gollum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gate n.arch way, path AHD/W7
ga(u)ntlet n double file of armed men striking person running between AHD/W7
go, gone vb.anom to proceed, move on course AHD/W7
heir n one entitled to inherit property AHD/W7
hereditament n heritable property AHD/W7
heredity n inheritance AHD/W7
heritage n property that descends to heir AHD/W7
inherit vb to receive, come into possession of AHD/W7
Scots English: gangrel n drifter, vagabond AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: gād n need GED
gān vb to go IEW
Frisian: gean vb to go ASD
Dutch: gaan vb to go ASD
Old Saxon: gān, gēn vb to go GED
meti-gēd(e)ono of famines GED
Low German: ga(a)n, gaen vb to go ASD
Old High German: gān, gēn vb to go GED/RPN
gaza n.fem street ASD
gazza n gate, road W7
Middle High German: gān, gēn vb to go ASD
gazze n.fem gate, narrow road ASD
German: Gasse n.fem gate, thoroughfare, narrow road ASD
gehen vb.str to go, walk LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: gata n gate, road W7
Old Icelandic: gā vb to go GED
Icelandic: gata n.fem gate ASD
Old Danish: gā vb to go IEW
Danish: gaa, gaæ vb to go ASD/GED
Old Swedish: gā vb to go IEW
Swedish: gata n.fem street ASD
gå vb to go GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: gaidw n.neut lack, want GED/RPN
gatwo n.fem street ASD
Crimean Gothic: geen vb to go IEW
Latin: chorographia n.fem chorography W7
hereditas, hereditatis n.fem heredity W7
hērēs, hēredis n.masc/fem heir(ess) GED/RPN
Late Latin: anchōrēta n anchorite AHD
heredito, hereditāre vb to inherit W7
inheredito, inhereditāre vb to inherit W7
Medieval Latin: anchōrīta n anchorite AHD
hereditamentum n.neut hereditament W7
Old French: (h)eir n heir MEV
Middle French: enheriter vb to make heir W7
heredité n.fem heredity W7
heritage n.masc heritage, heirloom W7
heriter vb to inherit W7
Ionic: χήρη adj/n bereft of husband; widow RPN
Attic: κιγχάνω vb to reach, meet with, arrive at RPN
χατέω vb to crave, have need of, lack RPN
χατίζω vb to crave, have need of, lack RPN
χατίζων n poor needy person RPN
χῆρα adj/n bereft of husband; widow RPN
χῆρος adj widowed, bereaved RPN
χήτει adv.dat in lack of RPN
χωρέω vb to make room for another RPN
χῶρος n place, (piece of) ground RPN
Greek: anachōrein vb to withdraw W7
kichanein vb to reach, attain W7
κιχήμεναι vb to find GED
χᾶτέω vb to lack, crave, long for GED
χήρα n widow GED
χῆρος adj bereaved, deprived of GED
χώρα n.fem land, country; space, room GED
chōrein vb to go, withdraw W7
χωρίζω vb to separate LRC
χωρίς prep apart LRC
chōros n.masc place W7
Late Greek: anachōrētēs n.masc person who retires from the world W7
Avestan: za-zāmi vb to release GED/RPN
Sanskrit: já-hāti vb to leave, abandon GED/RPN
hāniṣ n.fem loss, abandonment, deprivation GED/RPN
hāpayati vb.caus to cause to leave; to be wanting RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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