Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. g̑hel-, and ghel-?, also as i-, u-, or n-stem; g̑helə-, g̑hlē-, g̑hlō-, g̑hlə-   'to shine, glare, glow; gold, yellow, bright color'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gel adj/n white GED
glan adj clean GED
glass adj blue, green RPN
glé adj clear RPN
Old English: (g)ealla n.masc gall W7/ASD
geolo, geolu adj yellow GED
glæd adj glad, cheerful, bright, brilliant RPN
glǣm n.masc gleam, brilliant light RPN/ASD
glæs n.neut glass W7/ASD
glēaw adj wise, prudent, sagacious LRC
glēd n.fem gleed ASD
glida n.masc glede: kite W7
glīdan vb.str to glide, slip RPN/ASD
glidder adj slippery RPN
glisian vb to glitter RPN
glisnian vb.wk to glisten W7/ASD
glōm n gloom, twilight RPN
glōming, glōm(m)ung n.fem gloaming, darkness W7/ASD
glōwan vb to glow RPN
gold n.neut gold LRC
gyldan vb.wk to gild W7/ASD
Middle English: arsenik n arsenic AHD
coler n choler W7
colera n bile W7
felon adj felon W7
gall n gall W7
gilden vb to gild W7
glad adj glad W7
glaren vb to glare W7
glas n glass W7
glasen vb to glaze W7
glede n glede: kite W7
gleed n gleed W7
gleem n gleam W7
gleg adj gleg W7
glenten, glinten vb to glint, dart obliquely W7
gliden vb to glide W7
glimeren vb to glimmer W7
glimsen vb to glimpse W7
glistnen vb to glisten W7
glistren vb to glister W7
gliteren vb to glitter W7
glouten vb to glout IEW
glowen vb to glow W7
gold n gold W7
golden adj golden W7
gollan n daisy W7
malencolie n melancholy W7
yelow, yelwe adj yellow W7
English: acholia n lack/deficiency of bile AHD
arsenic n highly poisonous metallic element AHD
chloasma n brownish skin discoloration AHD
chlorine n greenish-yellow halogen gas W7
chlorite n green monoclinic mineral resembling mica AHD/W7
chlor(o)- pfx green; chlorine AHD/W7
chol(e)- pfx bile, gall AHD
choler n yellow bile AHD/W7
cholera n disease marked by severe gastrointestinal distress AHD/W7
felon adj cruel, evil AHD/W7
gall n bile; rancor, bitterness AHD/W7
gild, gilt vb.wk.trans to overlay with thin gold covering AHD/W7
glabella n smooth prominence between eyebrows AHD/W7
glabrous adj smooth AHD/W7
glad adj having naturally cheerful/happy disposition AHD/W7
glance n mineral sulfide with metallic luster AHD/W7
glare vb to shine with uncomfortably harsh/brilliant light AHD/W7
glass n amorphous transparent/translucent inorganic substance AHD/W7
glaze vb to fit/furnish with glass AHD/W7
glazier n one who glazes, sets glass AHD/W7
gleam n transient appearance of subdued/partly obscured light AHD/W7
glede n gleed in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
glede n kite: (European) bird of prey AHD/W7
gleed n ember, live/glowing coal AHD/W7
gleg adj quick, sharp AHD/W7
glib adj smooth, slippery AHD/W7
glide vb to move smoothly/effortlessly/continuously AHD/W7
glimmer vb.intrans to shine faintly/unsteadily AHD/W7
glimpse vb to glimmer AHD/W7
glint vb to glance off AHD/W7
glissade vb.intrans to slide down snow-covered slope without skis/other devices AHD/W7
glisten vb.intrans to reflect light with mild luster/sparkling radiance AHD/W7
glister vb.intrans to glisten AHD/W7
glitch n minor mishap/problem/malfunction AHD
glitter vb.intrans to reflect light with brilliant/metallic luster AHD/W7
glitz n flashiness, ostentatious showiness AHD
glitzy adj showy, flashy AHD
gloaming n dusk, twilight AHD/W7
gloat vb.intrans to look/gaze admiringly/affectionately AHD/W7
glogg n mulled wine, hot alcoholic punch AHD
Glóin prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
gloom n darkness, dark place W7
gloss n polish, superficial luster/brightness AHD/W7
glout vb to scowl, frown IEW/W7
glow vb.intrans to shine with intense heat AHD/W7
glower vb to frown, look/stare sullenly IEW/W7
gold n malleable ductile metal used in coins/jewelry/etc. AHD/W7
Goldberry prop.n Bombadil's wife in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
golden adj re: gold W7
Goldwine prop.n 6th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gowan n daisy AHD/W7
guilder n gold (florin) AHD/W7
gulden n gold W7
melancholy n abnormal state characterized by depression/irascibility AHD/W7
yellow adj of color yellow AHD/W7
zloty n unit of Polish currency AHD/W7
Scots English: gleg adj quick of perception ASD
gloming n gloaming W7
glowren vb to glower W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: glēd n gleed ASD
glisa vb to shine, glisten ASD
gold n.str.neut gold GED
Middle Dutch: gulden adj golden W7
Dutch: gal n.fem gall ASD
glas n glass TLL
goud n gold TLL
gulden adj golden W7
Old Saxon: galla n.fem gall ASD
gelo adj yellow GED
glau adj wise, prudent, clear-sighted ASD
glīdan vb to glide, slip RPN
glōjan vb to glow RPN
gold n.str.neut gold GED
Low German: glibberig adj slippery W7
Old High German: galla n.fem gall ASD
gelo adj yellow GED/RPN
glanz adj bright W7
glas n glass, amber KDW
glat, clat adj bright, shiny; smooth, slippery RPN/ASD
glaw adj wise, prudent, clear-sighted ASD
gleimo n gleam, brightness ASD
glenzen vb to shine RPN
glītan vb to glide, slip RPN
glīzan vb to shine AHD
gluoen vb to glow RPN
gluot n gleed ASD
gold n.str.neut gold GED
Middle High German: galle n.fem gall ASD
glimsen vb to glimmer W7
glīten vb to glide AHD
glitschen vb to glide AHD
glitzen vb to shine AHD
New High German: glatt adj smooth, slippery RPN
gleiten vb to glide, to slip, to slide RPN
German: Chlorit n chlorite W7
Galle n.fem gall ASD
Glanz n glance; luster W7
Glas n glass TLL
glau adj wise, prudent, clear-sighted ASD
glitzern vb to glitter AHD
gluth n gleed ASD
Gold n.neut gold LRC
Yiddish: glitsh n slip, lapse, glitch AHD
glitshn vb to glide, slip AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fingrgull n.neut ring, lit. finger-gold GED
gall n.neut gall ODE
Glámr prop.n.masc Glam: ghost in Grettis saga ICE
gler n glass KNW
glitra vb to shine W7
glotta vb to glout, grin scornfully W7
glóa vb to glow, shine, glitter LRC
Glói(nn) prop.n.masc Gloin (Voluspa dwarf) LRC
glöggr adj clear-sighted W7
gull n.neut gold LRC
Old Icelandic: glaðr adj glad, cheerful RPN
glámr n.masc moon IEW/ICE
glit n glitter RPN
gljá vb to shine, glisten RPN
glóa vb to glow, shine, glitter RPN
glóð n red-hot ember(s) RPN
glæa vb to glow, glisten RPN
gulr adj yellow GED/RPN
Icelandic: gall n.neut gall ASD
glaðr adj glad, bright ASD
gleða n glede, kite ASD
gler n glass ASD
glossa vb to glow W7
glōð n.fem gleed ASD
glögr adj wise, prudent, clear-sighted ASD
gull n gold ASD
gylla vb to gild ASD
Norwegian: glȳra vb to look askance W7
Danish: galde n.masc/fem gall ASD
glad adj glad ASD
glas n glass TLL
gul adj yellow LRC
guld n gold TLL
gulerod n carrot TLL
Swedish: galle n.masc gall ASD
glas n glass TLL
glinta vb to glide, slip RPN
glöd n ember AHD
glödga vb to mull (wine) AHD
glögg n glogg AHD
glänta vb to clear up W7
guld n gold TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: figgra-gulþ n.neut ring, lit. finger-gold GED
glaggwus adj diligent ASD
glitmunjan vb.wk.I to shine, glitter LRC
*gulþ n.neut gold GED/RPN
*gulþeins adj golden GED
Crimean Gothic: *golþ, goltz n gold CGo/GED
Latin: arsenicum n arsenic AHD
chloritis n.fem a green stone W7
cholera n.fem bilious disease W7
fel, fellis n.neut gall GED
glabellus adj hairless, shaven W7
glaber, glabra, glabrum adj hairless, shaven W7
helvus adj light bay, (honey-)yellow GED/RPN
Late Latin: melancholia n.fem melancholy W7
Medieval Latin: fello n.masc villain, evildoer W7
Old French: arsenik n arsenic AHD
fel n.masc act of lying, cheating W7
felon adj liar, evildoer W7
glicier vb to slide W7
Middle French: colère n.fem anger W7
mélancolie n.fem melancholy W7
French: glissade n.fem action of sliding W7
glisser vb to slide W7
Lithuanian: žãlas adj red RPN
žãlias adj green GED/RPN
žélti vb to become green GED
žìlas adj gray RPN
žlėjà n twilight RPN
Old Church Slavonic: zelenъ adj green GED/RPN
Albanian: dhelpër n fox, lit. yellow one GED
Homeric Greek: χόλος n.masc gall; wrath, anger GED
χολόω vb to anger, enrage LRC
χολωτός adj angry, wrathful LRC
Greek: arsenikon n yellow orpiment AHD
melancholia n.fem melancholy W7
chleuē n.fem joke W7
χλωρός adj greenish yellow GED/RPN
cholera n.fem cholera, bilious disease W7
χολή n.fem gall; wrath, anger GED
Old Iranian: *zarna- adj golden AHD
Old Persian: daraniya n gold GED
Middle Persian: *zarnīk n yellow orpiment AHD
Avestan: zairina- adj green GED
zairis adj yellow GED
zaranya- n gold RPN
Sogdian: zyrn n gold GED
Sanskrit: háris adj yellow, tawny GED/RPN
híraṇya-ḥ n gold RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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