Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. g̑her-   'to desire, yearn for'

Semantic Field(s): to Desire


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: dōm-georn adj lit. glory-desirous LRC
giernan vb to yearn W7
grǣd n.masc greed GED
grǣdig adj greedy GED
lof-georn adj eager for praise LRC
Middle English: eukarist n Eucharist W7
exhorten vb to exhort W7
gredy adj greedy W7
yernen vb to yearn W7
English: catachresis n use of wrong word for context AHD/W7
charisma n extraordinary power (e.g. of healing) AHD/W7
chresard n water (in soil) available to plants AHD
Eucharist prop.n Christian sacrament/ceremony of Holy Communion LRC
exhort vb to incite by advice/argument AHD/W7
greed n avarice, rapacity LRC
greedy adj having strong desire for food/drink AHD/W7
hortative adj advisory, giving exhortation AHD/W7
yearn vb.intrans to feel longing/craving AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: graag adj hungry GED
Old Saxon: grādag adj greedy GED
Old High German: gerōn vb to desire W7
grātag adj greedy GED
grātida n.fem zeal GED
lob-gerni adj desirous of praise ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: grið peace, protection LRC
Old Icelandic: grāðr n.masc greed GED
grāðugr adj greedy GED
Icelandic: grāðr n greed, hunger ASD
grāðugr adj greedy ASD
lof-gjarn adj desirous of praise ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: grēdags adj hungry LRC
gredags adj hungry GED
*gredon vb.wk.II to hunger GED
*gredus n.masc hunger GED
Latin: exhortor, exhortārī vb.dep to exhort, encourage W7
hortor, hortāri, hortātus vb.dep.freq to urge, incite, encourage W7
Late Latin: eucharistia n.fem Eucharist W7
hortativus adj quality of a speech meant to urge W7
Middle French: euchariste n.fem Eucharist W7
exhorter vb to exhort W7
Lithuanian: gardhùs adj tasty GED
Latvian: gar̃ds adj tasty GED
Greek: eucharistos adj grateful W7
katachrēsthai vb to use up, misuse W7
katachrēsis n.fem misuse W7
συγχαίρω vb to rejoice with LRC
χαίρω vb to rejoice LRC
χαρά n.fem joy LRC
charizesthai vb to favor W7
charis n.fem grace, gratitude W7
charisma n.neut gift, favor W7
chrēsthai vb to use W7
Sanskrit: gardhas n greed GED
gŕ̥dhyati vb to desire GED
gṛdhnuṣ adj greedy; swift GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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