Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. g̑her-   'to gash, slit, scrape, scratch'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, to Rub

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Middle English: caracter n character W7
garsen vb to gash W7
English: characin n small brightly-colored tropical fish AHD/W7
character n graphic mark/device on object indicating origin/ownership/relationship AHD/W7
gash vb to make long deep cut AHD/W7
Italic  
Latin: character n.masc character, distinctive quality W7
Vulgar Latin: charisso, charissāre vb to engrave W7
Old North French: garser vb to gash, scratch, engrave W7
Middle French: caractère n.masc personality, type W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: žeriù, žer̃ti vb to rake, scratch out RPN
Albanian  
Albanian: karakter n.masc character, distinctive quality LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: charaktēr n.masc personality, distinctive mark, figure on coinage W7
charax n.masc/fem pointed stake; fish W7
χαράσσω vb to cut, engrave, scratch RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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