Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. g̑her-, and g̑herə-, g̑hrē-   'to beam, shine, shimmer'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: gerr adj short RPN
gerraim vb to shorten, cut off RPN
Old English: grǣg, grēg adj gray ASD/W7
grǣg-hama adj/n.wk.masc gray-coated (one, i.e. wolf) ASD
Middle English: ambregris n ambergris W7
gray adj re: color gray W7
grisel adj grizzled W7
English: ambergris n waxy substance floating in tropical waters AHD/W7
gray adj re: color gray AHD/W7
greige adj undyed, unbleached AHD/W9
Greyflood prop.n Eriador river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Greyhame prop.n epithet for Gandalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
greyhound n tall slender dog (breed): swift, graceful, smooth-coated AHD/W7
grisaille n gray monochrome painting AHD/W7
griseofulvin n antibiotic for fungal infections AHD/W9
griseous adj grizzled, mottled in color AHD/W7
grisette n young working-class woman AHD/W7
grison n gray S American carnivore AHD
grizzle n gray hair AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: grē adj gray ASD
Old High German: crisil adj gray AHW
grāo, grāw adj gray ASD/W7
German: grau adj gray ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: grār adj gray ASD
Old French: gris adj gray AHD
Middle French: gris, grisel adj gray W7
French: grisaille n grisaille W7
grisette n grisette W7
Old Church Slavonic: zьrěti, zьr'jǫ, zьriši vb to see LRC
Sanskrit: hrásati vb to become short/small RPN
hrasvá-ḥ adj short, small RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
AHW=Rudolf Schützeichel: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch (1981)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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