Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. gel-   'to stab; pain, death, quell'

Semantic Field(s): to Press, Knife (tool), Pain, Suffering, to Die; Dead; Death


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: atbaill vb to die, perish GED
Middle Welsh: (a)ballu vb to die, perish GED
Old English: cwalu, cwælu n.fem violent death, slaughter, destruction ASD/GED
cwelan vb.str to die GED
cwellan vb to kill W7
cwyld-tīd n.str.neut evening, time of rest
Middle English: killen vb to kill W7
quell n quell W7
quellen vb to quell, kill W7
quille n quill IEW
English: belonephobia n trypanophobia, fear of pins/needles AHD
kill vb to deprive of life AHD/W7
quell n killing, slaughter AHD/W7
quell vb.trans to suppress, put down AHD/W7
quill n large feather; weaving spool IEW
West Germanic  
Dutch: kwaal n fatal illness GED
kwellen vb to vex ASD
quelen vb to die ASD
Old Saxon: qualu n.str.fem torment GED
quelan vb to die violently ASD
quellian vb to kill ASD
Old High German: chelī, quelī n torment GED
chwilti-werk n.str.neut evening work GED
quāla n.fem quell, torment, misery, suffering GED
quelan vb.str.IV to suffer GED
queljan vb to kill ASD
quellen vb to quell, kill, torture W7
Middle High German: quel(le)n, kellen vb to vex, press ASD
German: Qual n.fem quell, torment LRC
quälen vb to vex ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: kveld n.str.neut evening, time of rest
kvǫl n suffering GED
Icelandic: kwelja vb to torment ASD
Danish: qwäle vb to quell, torture ASD
Swedish: kväll n evening TLL
qwälja vb to torment ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *ana-qal n rest, quiet GED
*ana-qilan vb to die, go to rest GED
Old Prussian: gallan n death GED
Lithuanian: gãlas n.masc end GED
gélti vb to prick GED
gėlà n severe pain GED
gìltinė n death GED
Latvian: galotne n.fem top, summit LRC
Old Church Slavonic: žalь n pain GED
žęlo vb to prick GED
Greek: belonē n.fem needle W7
Armenian: kełem n torture GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at