Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kap-ut   'head'

Semantic Field(s): Head


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: behēafdian vb to behead AHD
h(e)afela, heafola, hafala n.masc head RPN/ASD
hēafod n head RPN
Middle English: acheven vb to achieve W7
biheden vb to behead AHD
cap n cape W7
capital adj/n capital W7
capitane n captain W7
catel n cattle W7
chapitre n chapter; meeting of canons W7
chief n chief W7
chieftaine n chieftain W7
courchef n kerchief W7
hed n head W7
meschief n mischief W7
English: achieve vb to accomplish, bring to successful conclusion AHD/W7
behead vb to decapitate, sever head from body AHD/W7
biceps n muscle having two heads AHD/W7
caddie n one who waits for odd jobs AHD/W7
cadet n younger son/brother AHD/W7
cape n point/peninsula of land jutting into water AHD/W7
capital adj punishable by death AHD/W7
capital n stock of accumulated goods AHD/W7
capitate adj forming a head AHD/W7
capitation n poll tax, direct personal uniform tax AHD/W7
capitellum n lower end of humerus AHD
capitulate vb.intrans to parley, negotiate AHD/W7
capitulum n rounded protuberance of anatomical part AHD/W7
capo n movable bar attached to fingerboard of fretted instrument AHD/W9
capo n head of branch of crime syndicate AHD/W9
caprice n sudden unpredictable turn/change AHD/W7
captain n commander of military establishment/body of troops AHD/W7
cattle n domesticated bovine quadrupeds AHD/W7
caudillo n Spanish/Latin-American strong man AHD/W7
chapiter n top/capital of column AHD/W7
chapter n main division of book AHD/W7
chef n skilled male cook managing kitchen AHD/W7
chief n upper part of heraldic field AHD/W7
chieftain n leader of band/clan/tribe AHD/W7
corporal n enlisted military man of lowest noncommissioned rank AHD/W7
decapitate vb.trans to behead, cut off head AHD/W7
forehead n facial part above eyes AHD/W7
godhead n divinity, divine nature/essence AHD/W7
head n upper/anterior division of body containing brain and chief sense organs AHD/W7
hetman n man in charge, lit. head-man AHD
kerchief n cloth square used as head covering/neck scarf AHD/W7
meathead n dull/stupid person AHD
mischief n damage/injury caused by human agency AHD/W7
occiput n back part of head/skull AHD/W7
precipitate n solid substance separated from chemical solution/suspension AHD/W7
precipitate vb to hurl, throw violently AHD/W7
recapitulate vb to summarize, repeat briefly AHD/W7
sinciput n forehead AHD/W7
Strawheads Rohirrim a.k.a. Forgoil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
triceps n muscle arising from three heads AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hāved, hād n head RPN
Dutch: hoofd n head TLL
kapitein n captain TLL
Old Saxon: hōƀid n head RPN
Old High German: houbit, haupit n head RPN/ASD
Middle High German: houbetman n.masc hetman AHD
German: Hauptmann n.masc hetman, captain AHD
Hetmann n.dial hetman AHD
Kapitän n.masc captain LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hǫfuð n.neut head LRC
Danish: hoved n head TLL
kaptajn n captain TLL
Swedish: huvud n head TLL
kapten n captain TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: haubiþ n head RPN
Latin: biceps adj two-headed W7
capillus n single hair on head TLL
capis, capitis n one-handled sacrificial vessel RPN
capitalis, capitale adj re: head W7
capitatus adj headed W7
capitulum n.neut chapter, heading W7
caput n.neut head RPN
occiput, occipitis n.neut the back of the head W7
praeceps, praecipitis n.neut precipice W7
praecipitatum n.neut precipitate W7
praecipitō, praecipitāre, praecipitāvī, praecipitātus vb to precipite W7
sinciput, sincipitis n.neut half a head, the brain W7
triceps, tricipitis adj three-headed W7
Late Latin: capitaneus n.masc chief W7
capitatio, capitationis n.fem poll tax W7
capitellum n.neut chapter; heading of colum W7
decapitō, decapitāre, decapitāvī, decapitātus vb to decapitate W7
recapitulo, recapitulare, recapitulavi, recapitulatus vb to restate by heads, sum up W7
Medieval Latin: capitale adj.neut of one's property, cattle W7
capitulo, capitulare, capitulavi, capitulatus vb to distinguish by heads/chapters W7
capitulum n.neut chapter, division of a book W7
New Latin: triceps, tricipitis n.masc triceps muscle W7
Portuguese: cabeça n head TLL
cabelo n hair TLL
Spanish: cabello n hair TLL
cabo n head TLL
capítulo n chapter TLL
caudillo n.masc guide/trainer in military exercises W7
Old French: chapitle, chapitre n.masc chapter W7
chief n.masc head, chief W7
covrir vb to cover W7
cuevrechief n.masc hat, head-covering W7
meschief n.masc calamity W7
Old North French: catel n.masc personal property W7
Middle French: achever vb to finish W7
cap n.masc cape W7
capitain n.masc captain W7
caporal n.masc corporal W7
chapitre n.masc chapter W7
chevetain n.masc chieftain W7
corporal n.masc corporal W7
French: cadet n.masc military cadet W7
capital n.masc capital W7
caprice n.masc caprice W7
chapitre n chapter TLL
chef n.masc leader, professional cook W7
cheveu n hair TLL
Old Provençal: cap n.masc head W7
Old Italian: capo n.masc head W7
caporale n.masc corporal W7
Italian: capello n hair TLL
capitale adj chief, principal W7
capitale n.masc capital, fund, stock W7
capo n.masc head, chief W7
capriccio n.masc fancy, caprice W7
Polish: hetman n hetman AHD
Ukrainian: het'man n hetman AHD
Sanskrit: kapā́la-m n cup, bowl; skull RPN
kapúcchala-m n tuft of hair on back of head RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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