Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. k̑ei-   'to lie, recline; camp, home'

Semantic Field(s): to Lie, Recline, Home


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: céle n.masc friend, fellow, companion AHD/IOI
célide n ceilidh, visit AHD
Irish: céilidhe n ceilidh AHD
Welsh: cilydd n comrade, companion IEW
Old English: hām n.masc/adv home, village; homeward(s) ASD/W7
hīgid n hide, archaic English land unit W7
hīwan, hīgan members of household ASD/W7
hīwian vb to marry KEW
Middle English: cimitery n cemetery W7
citie n large/small town W7
civil adj civil W7
hamlet n hamlet W7
haunten vb to haunt W7
hide n hide (areal unit) W7
hine n servant, farmhand W7
hom n home W7
English: ceilidh n social gathering with Celtic dance/music/storytelling AHD
cemetery n burial ground AHD/W7
city n inhabited area greater in size/importance/population than town/village AHD/W7
civic adj re: city/citizen(ship)/civil affairs AHD/W7
civil adj re: citizens AHD/W7
haimish adj warm, homey, folksy, comfortable AHD
Hamfast prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hamlet n small village AHD/W7
Hamson prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hangar n shed, shelter, covered area AHD
haunt vb to frequent, visit often AHD/W7
hide n old English areal unit (usu. 120 acres) AHD/W7
hind n British farmhand AHD/W7
home n domicile, family's residence AHD/W7
homey adj cosy, homelike, intimate W7
incunabulum n book printed before 1501 AHD/W7
Niflheim prop.n primordial realm of cold and darkness, lit. Mist Home (Norse mythology) LRC
site n place, position, (occupied) location W7
situate adj re: location, having a site AHD/W7
situate vb to place, locate W7
situs n site AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: huwelijk n marriage TLL
huwen vb to marry LRC
Old Saxon: hēm n home, dwelling place ASD
hīwa n wife ASD
Old High German: haim n/adv home ASD
hīwa n married woman ASD
hīwo n married man ASD
German: Heim n.neut home ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: heimr n.masc home, region, world LRC
Niflheimr prop.n.masc Niflheim W7
Icelandic: heim adv home ASD
heimr n abode, world ASD
hjū(n), hjōn n family, household, man and wife ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: haims n.fem home, village ASD
heiwa-frauja n.masc head of household KGW
Latin: civicus adj civic W7
civilis adj civil W7
civis n.masc citizen W7
civitas, civitatis n.fem citizenship, state, city of Rome LRC
cuna n.fem cradle W7
incunabula n.fem swaddling clothes, cradle W7
situs n.masc situs W7
Late Latin: coemeterium n.neut burial place W7
Medieval Latin: situō, situāre, situāvī, situātus vb to situate W7
New Latin: incunabulum n.neut book printed before 1501 W7
Spanish: ciudád n city TLL
Old French: cité n.fem capital city W7
hanter vb to haunt W7
Middle French: cimitere n.masc cemetery W7
civil adj of a citizen W7
hamelet n.masc.dim hamlet W7
Italian: città n city TLL
Latvian: saime n.fem family LRC
Greek: κεῖμαι vb to lie, recline, be placed LRC
koiman vb to put to sleep W7
koimētērion n.neut sleeping chamber, burial place W7
κοίτη n.fem the marriage-bed RPN
κοῖτος n.masc the marriage-bed RPN
kōmē n.fem village W7
Hittite: ki-it-ta(-ri) to lie, be placed RPN
Palaic: ki-i-ta-ar to lie, be placed RPN
Avestan: saēte vb to lie down, recline RPN
Sanskrit: śāyayati vb.caus to lay, cause to lie down RPN
śéte vb to lie (down) RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
mid=middle (voice)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
sg=singular (number)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
IOI=Ruth P.M. and Winfred P. Lehmann: An Introduction to Old Irish (1975)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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