Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kert-, kerət-, krāt-   'to roll, turn, wind'

Semantic Field(s): to Roll, to Turn, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hyrd n door RPN
hyrdel n.masc hurdle RPN/ASD
Middle English: grate n grate W7
gredil n griddle, gridiron W7
gredire n gridiron W7
hurdel n hurdle W7
English: crate n box made of wooden slats AHD/W7
grate n cage, prison AHD/W7
grid n grating AHD/W7
griddle n flat cooking surface AHD/W7
gridiron n grated metal food-broiling frame AHD/W7
grill n parallel bars for cooking food over fire AHD/W7
hoard(ing) n temporary board fence AHD/W7
horst n raised block of earth's crust AHD/W7
hurdle n portable panel of wattled withes/stakes for enclosing land/livestock AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: hurd n hurdle, wattle RPN
hurt n hurdle ASD
German: Grill n.masc grill LRC
Horst n horst W7
Hürde n hurdle ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hurð n.fem door LRC
Icelandic: hurð n door; hurdle ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: haúrds n.str.fem door LRC
Latin: craticulum n.neut grill W7
crātis n.fem trellis, wicker basket, hurdle-work RPN
Medieval Latin: crata, grata n.fem hurdle W7
Old North French: gredil n.masc griddle W7
French: gril n.masc grill W7
Lithuanian: krañtas n bank, seashore RPN
krãštas n edge, border, bank RPN
Latvian: krants n cliff RPN
krasts n shore, bank (of a river) RPN
Slovenian: krétati vb to turn RPN
Russian: krug n circle RPN
krugóm n round RPN
kružít' vb to turn, whirl, spin RPN
krutít' vb to twist, twirl, roll up RPN
krutój n steep RPN
krúča n steep slope RPN
Greek: κάρταλος n basket with pointed bottom RPN
Farsi: karān n shore, side RPN
Avestan: karana- n end, border, shore RPN
Sanskrit: kṛṇátti vb to twist, spin RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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