Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. k̑leu-, k̑leu̯ə- : k̑lū-   'to hear, listen'

Semantic Field(s): to Hear, to Listen, Harken


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cloth n fame RPN
clú n fame, renown RPN
clúas n ear RPN
Old English: hlēoðor n.neut song, sound LRC
hlūd adj loud, noisy RPN
hlysnan vb to listen W7
hlyst n.masc/fem hearing ASD/W7
hlystan vb.wk to list ASD/RPN
Middle English: listen vb to list W7
listnen vb to listen W7
loud adj loud W7
sclave n slave W7
English: ablaut n systematic vowel variation in same/related root/affix AHD/W7
Clio prop.n Muse of history/heroic poetry (Greek mythology) LRC
Damocles prop.n excessively flattering courtier featured in anecdote by Cicero LRC
Hercules prop.n hero noted for exceptional strength (Greek mythology) LRC
list vb to hear, listen (to) AHD/W7
listen vb to hear, give ear to AHD/W7
loud adj marked by high sound volume/intensity AHD/W7
Loudwater prop.n a.k.a. Bruinen River in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
sarod n many-stringed lute played with plectrum AHD
Slav prop.n ethnonym of Indo-European in Eastern Europe TLL
slave n bondman, one held in servitude as chattel W7
Slavic n.prop re: Slavs or their language TLL
umlaut n change of vowel sound AHD/W7
Wenceslas prop.n duke/patron saint of Bohemia AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hlūd adj loud ASD
Old Saxon: hlūd adj loud ASD
hlust n hearing ASD
Old High German: hlioda n sound ASD
hlūt adj loud W7
German: Ablaut n.masc ablaut W7
laut adj loud W7
Umlaut n.masc umlaut W7
Wenzel prop.n Wenceslas AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hljóð n.neut silence, hearing LRC
hljóðr adj silent, quiet LRC
Old Icelandic: hler n listening RPN
hlust n ear RPN
hlyða vb to listen RPN
Icelandic: hljōð n sound ASD
hljōðan n sound, tune ASD
hlust n ear ASD
hlusta vb to listen ASD
Danish: lyd n sound ASD
Swedish: ljud n sound ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: hliuma n hearing RPN
Latin: Clio n.fem Clio W7
clueo, cluēre vb to be called/named RPN
cluō, cluāre vb to be called, be famous RPN
Damocles n.masc Damocles W7
Hercules n.masc Hercules, Heracles W7
inclutus adj famous W7
Middle Latin: Sclavus prop.n Slav W7
sclavus n slave W7
Spanish: esclavo n slave TLL
Old French: esclave n slave W7
French: esclave n slave TLL
Old Prussian: klausīton vb to hear RPN
Lithuanian: klausaũ, klausýti vb to listen RPN
Latvian: izklausīt, izklausu, izklausīju vb to ask, inquire LRC
klàusît vb to listen RPN
Slovenian: slúšati vb to listen RPN
Old Church Slavonic: slava n.fem fame, glory LRC
slaviti, slavl'jǫ, slaviši vb to glorify LRC
slovo n.neut word LRC
slovǫ, sluti vb to be renowned RPN
sluxъ n.masc hearing, fame, rumor LRC
slyšati, slyšajǫ, slyšaješi vb to hear LRC
slyšati, slyšǫ, slyšiši vb to hear LRC
Russian: slúšat' vb to listen RPN
Greek: ἀκλεός adj without fame LRC
Damoklēs n.masc Damocles W7
Hēraklēs n.masc Hercules W7
Kleiō n.fem Clio W7
κλέος n report; fame, glory RPN
κλέω vb to celebrate, make famous RPN
κλυτός vb.past.pass.ptc heard RPN
klytos adj famous W7
κλύω vb to hear RPN
Classical Armenian: luṙ adj silent LRC
lur n hearing; news, report; voice LRC
lsem vb to hear, listen LRC
Armenian: lu vb.past.ptc/n heard; news, fame RPN
Avestan: surunaoiti vb to hear RPN
Sanskrit: śṛṇóti vb to hear RPN
śrávas- n praise, fame, glory RPN
śrutá-ḥ vb.past.pass.ptc heard RPN
śroṣati vb to hear W7
Tocharian B: kälywe n reputation, renown RPN
klautso n ear RPN
klāw- vb to be called/named RPN
klāwi n fame RPN
klyauṣ- vb to listen, hear RPN
Tocharian A: klāw- vb to be called/named RPN
klots n ear RPN
klyoṣ- vb to listen, hear RPN
klyw- n reputation, renown RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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