Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: magh- : māgh-   'to help, be able; might, power'

Semantic Field(s): to Help, Aid, Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ealmihtig adj almighty AHD
mægen n.neut main LRC
magan, mæg, magon, meahte vb.ptpr.V may, be able to LRC
mi(e)ht, me(a)ht, maht, mæht n.fem might ASD/W7
mihtig adj mighty MEV
Middle English: almy(gh)ty adj almighty MEV
dismayen vb to dismay W7
magik n magic W7
magus n magus W7
main adj/n main W7
might n might W7
English: almighty adj having absolute might/power W7
dismay vb.trans to take away.courage/resolution of with alarm AHD/W7
machine n constructed thing (material/immaterial) AHD/W7
magic n use of means (charms, spells) believed to have supernatural power over natural forces AHD/W7
magus n member of hereditary priestly class among ancient Medes/Persians AHD/W7
main adj outstanding, conspicuous AHD/W7
main n force, physical strength AHD/W7
mainmast n sailing ship's principal mast W7
may vb.mod to be able AHD/W7
mechanic adj re: machine (esp. in routine/automatic performance) AHD/W7
mechanism n machine, mechanical appliance AHD
mechan(o)- pfx machine AHD
might n entity's power/resources/authority AHD/W7
mighty adj strong, powerful, re: might LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: macht, meht n might ASD
mugan vb.mod may ASD
Dutch: mag vb.mod.1/ (I/he) may TLL
magt n might ASD
Old Saxon: maht n might ASD
megin n main, might ASD
mugan vb.mod may ASD
Old High German: magan, megin n main ASD/W7
magan, mugan vb.mod may ASD/W7
maht n might W7
Middle High German: maht n might ASD
mugen, mügen vb.mod may ASD
German: Macht n.fem might ASD
mächtig adj mighty TLL
mag vb.mod.1/ (I/he) may, like(s) to TLL
mögen vb.mod may ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mega vb.mod may LRC
megin n.neut main, (supernatural) strength LRC
Icelandic: magn, megin n main, might ASD
máttr n might ASD
Danish: maa vb.mod.1/ (I/he) may TLL
Swedish: må vb.mod.1/ (I/he) may TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: magan vb.ptpr may LRC
mahts n.str.fem might LRC
Latin: machina n.fem machine, device (in theater) W7
magice n.fem magic W7
magus n.masc magus, sorcerer W7
mechanicus adj mechanic W7
Old French: desmaiier vb to dismay W7
Middle French: machine n.fem machine, device W7
magique adj magical W7
méchanique adj/n.fem mechanical; machine W7
Old Church Slavonic: mošti, mogǫ, mogeši vb.mod may LRC
Doric: machana n.fem machine, device (in theater) W7
mēchos n.neut means, expedient W7
Greek: magikos adj re: magic W7
μάγος n.masc magus, sorcerer, wise man LRC
μηχανή n.fem machine, device, instrument LRC
mēchanikos adj mechanic W7
mēchos n.neut means, expedient W7
Old Persian: mogush n magus, sorcerer W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
3=3rd person
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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