Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. nāus-   'boat, ship'

Semantic Field(s): Boat, Ship


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: nōwend n.masc sailor W7/ASD
Middle English: navie n navy W7
noise n noise W7
English: aeronaut n one who works/travels in atmosphere AHD/W7
aquanaut n one who lives/works underwater AHD
Argonaut prop.n Argo crewmember seeking Golden Fleece (Greek mythology) AHD
astronaut n one who works/travels in space AHD
cosmonaut n astronaut AHD/W7
nacelle n enclosed shelter on aircraft for engine AHD/W7
nausea n stomach distress, urge to vomit AHD/W7
nautical adj re: ships/seamen/navigation AHD/W7
nautilus n cephalopod mollusks of Indian/South Pacific oceans AHD/W7
naval adj re: ships/shipping AHD/W7
nave n main part of interior of church AHD/W7
navicular adj boat-shaped AHD/W7
navicular n bone (esp. of carpus) AHD/W7
navy n military fleet/ships AHD/W7
noise n loud/confused/senseless outcry/shouting AHD/W7
Latin: Argonauta prop.n Argonaut AHD
nausea n.fem nausea W7
nauticus adj nautical W7
nautilus n.masc paper nautilus W7
navalis adj naval, of navigation W7
navicula n.fem small boat W7
navigia ships W7
navigo, navigāre vb to sail, navigate W7
navis n.fem ship W7
Late Latin: navicella n.fem little ship W7
New Latin: nautilus n.masc (genus of) nautilus mollusks W7
Old French: noise n.fem noise, strife, quarrel W7
French: nacelle n.fem little boat, montgolfier basket W7
navire n.masc ship W7
Russian: aeronavt n aeronaut W7
Greek: Argonautēs prop.n Argonaut AHD
ναῦς n.fem ship LRC
nautēs n.masc sailor W7
nautia n.fem nausea W7
nautikos adj nautical W7
nautilos n.masc sailor W7
Sanskrit: nau n ship W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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