Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. peig-, and peik-   'colored, speckled'

Semantic Field(s): Color


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fāg, fāh adj dyed, stained, colored, variegated ASD
fēol n.fem file ASD/W7
Middle English: file n file W7
painten vb to paint W7
picture n picture W7
pinte n pint W7
English: depict vb.trans to represent via picture AHD/W7
file n metal tool with ridges to cut/form/smooth surfaces AHD/W7
paint vb to apply paint/color/pigment AHD/W7
pictograph n ancient/prehistoric drawing/painting on rock wall AHD/W7
picture n representation via drawing/painting AHD/W7
picturesque adj resembling picture, suggesting painted scene AHD/W7
pigment n substance imparting color to other materials AHD/W7
pim(i)ento n sweet European pepper: source of paprika AHD/W7
pint n unit of volume: 16 oz. AHD/W7
pinto n spotted/calico horse/pony AHD/W7
poikilotherm n cold-blooded organism AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: vijl n.fem file ASD
Old Saxon: fēh adj stained, colored ASD
Old High German: fēh adj stained, colored ASD
fī(ha)la n.fem file ASD/W7
Middle High German: vēch adj stained, colored ASD
vile n.fem file ASD
German: fech adj stained, colored ASD
Feile n.fem file ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fá, fáð vb to color LRC
Icelandic: þēl n.fem file ASD
Danish: fiil n.masc/fem file ASD
Swedish: fil n.masc file ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: faihs adj stained, colored ASD
Latin: depictus vb.ptc painted, represented W7
depingo, depingere vb to paint, represent W7
pictor n.masc painter W7
pictura, picturae n.fem painting LRC
pictus, picta, pictum adj/vb.ptc painted LRC
pigmentum n.neut paint, pigment W7
pingo, pingere vb to paint W7
Vulgar Latin: pinctus, pincta, pinctum vb.ptc painted W7
Late Latin: pigmentum n.neut pigment, plant juice W7
Medieval Latin: pincta vb.ptc.fem painted W7
Spanish: pimienta n.fem pimento pepper W7
pinto adj spotted W7
American Spanish: pinto adj spotted W7
Old French: peindre vb to paint W7
peint vb.ptc painted W7
Middle French: pinte n.fem pint W7
French: pittoresque adj picturesque, folklorical W7
Italian: pittore n.masc painter W7
pittoresco adj picturesque W7
Old Church Slavonic: pьsati, pьšǫ, pьšeši vb to write LRC
Greek: pikros adj sharp, bitter W7
poikilos adj variegated W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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