Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. peig̑-, and peik̑-   'to be hostile'

Semantic Field(s): Hate (n), Foe, Enemy, Enemy (in War)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: befician vb to deceive, go round ASD
fǣge adj fey LRC
fāg, fāh adj guilty, outlawed, hostile, inimical ASD
fāh(man) n foe(man) ASD
ficol adj fickle ASD
Middle English: feide n feud W7
feye adj fey W7
fikel adj fickle W7
fo n foe W7
English: feud n prolonged quarrel AHD/W7
fey adj doomed, fated/destined to die AHD/W7
fickle adj erratic, deceitful, inconstant AHD/W7
foe n foeman AHD/W7
foeman n enemy, one with personal enmity LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: veeg adj fey ASD
Old Saxon: fēgi adj fey ASD
Old High German: fēhida n feud, hostility W7
feigi adj fey W7
(ga)fēh adj hostile, inimical ASD
gifēh adj hostile, inimical W7
Middle High German: (ge)vēch adj hostile, inimical ASD
veige adj fey ASD
German: feig adj timid, cowardly ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: feigr adj fey ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: fayan vb to reproach, be hostile ASD
Latin: pigeo, pigēre vb to irk W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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