Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. pek̑-, pēk̑-, pōk̑-   'to be joyful, make pretty'

Semantic Field(s): Glad, Joyful, Beautiful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fæg(e)n adj fain ASD/W7
fæg(e)r adj fair ASD
fæger n.fem fairness, beauty ASD
fæg(e)re, fegere adv fairly, gently, beautifully ASD
fagan adj glad W7
fagnian vb.wk to rejoice ASD/W7
Middle English: fagen adj fain W7
fager, fair adj fair W7
faunen vb to fawn W7
fayn adj fain W7
English: fain adj glad, pleased, happy, joyful AHD/W7
fain adv rather, willingly W7
fair adj fit, pleasing, beautiful AHD/W7
Fairbairn prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
fairly adv suitably, handsomely, becomingly W7
fawn vb.intrans to show affection AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: fagan adj fain ASD
fagar adj fair, adapted ASD
Old High German: fagar adj fair, adapted ASD
fagarī n.fem beauty, fairness ASD
Middle High German: fager adj fair, adapted ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fagna, fagnað vb to be fain LRC
fagr(an) adj fair LRC
fegiun adj fain W7
Icelandic: fagr adj fair ASD
feginn adj fain ASD
Danish: fager, fauer, faver adj fair, adapted ASD
Swedish: fager adj fair, adapted ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: faginōn vb.wk.II to rejoice LRC
fagrs adj fair, adapted ASD
fullafahjan vb.wk.I to serve, satisfy LRC
Lithuanian: puošti vb to adorn, decorate LD/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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