Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. pek̑-   'to fleece; fee, cattle'

Semantic Field(s): Wool, Cattle, Bovines


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fe(a)x n.neut hair, locks ASD/IEW
feoh, fioh n.str.neut fee, wealth; (name for) F-rune ASD
feoh-gift n.fem money-gift, lit. cattle-gift LRC
feoh-lēas adj moneyless, lit. without cattle LRC
feohtan, feaht, fuhton, fohten vb.str.III to fight LRC
fēo-laga n fellow, partner, lit. money-layer W7
Middle English: enfeoffen vb to enfeoff W7
fe, fe(o)h n fee W2I
felawe n fellow W7
feoffement n feoffment W7
fighten vb to fight W7
impecunious adj impecunious W7
peculier adj peculiar W7
pecunious adj pecunious W7
English: ctenidium n comblike structure AHD
ctenoid adj having toothed margin AHD/W7
ctenophore n marine animal resembling jellyfish AHD/W7
enfeoff vb.trans to invest with fief/other possessions AHD/W7
fee n cattle; goods, money, property AHD/W2I
fellow n comrade, associate AHD/W7
Fellowship prop.n band of 9 heroes in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
fellowship n group of friends/comrades LRC
feoffment n granting a fief AHD/W7
feud n fee AHD/W7
fief n fee, feudal estate AHD/W7
fight, fought vb.str to contend in battle/physical combat AHD/W7
impecunious adj penniless, having little/no money AHD/W7
pecorino n Italian cheese made from ewe's milk AHD
pecten n body part resembling comb AHD/W7
peculate vb.trans to embezzle AHD/W7
peculiar adj belonging exclusively to single person/group AHD/W7
pecuniary adj re: money AHD/W7
pecunious adj.obs rich, wealthy AHD/W7
Shadowfax prop.n Gandalf's silver-gray horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Scots English: fecht vb to fight ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fax n hair, locks ASD
fia, fya n.neut fee ASD
fiuchta vb to fight ASD
Frisian: fjuechten vb to fight ASD
Dutch: vechten vb to fight ASD
vee n.neut fee ASD
Old Saxon: fahs n.neut hair, locks ASD
fehtan vb to fight ASD
fehu, fē, fio n fee, wealth ASD/CDC
Low German: fee, vee, veih n.neut fee ASD/CDC
Old High German: fahs n.neut hair, locks ASD
fehtan vb to fight W7
fehu, fihu n.neut fee ASD/CDC
Middle High German: vahs n.masc hair, locks ASD
vehten vb to fight ASD
vihe n.neut fee ASD
German: fechten vb to fight ASD
Vieh n.neut fee ASD
North Germanic  
Runic: *fehu n fee, wealth; (name for) F-rune LRC
Old Norse: fé n.neut fee, sheep LRC
fēlag(i) n fellowship, partnership W7
fær n sheep KNW
Icelandic: fax n.neut mane ASD
fē n.neut fee ASD
Danish: faar n sheep TLL
fegte, fægte vb to fight ASD
n.neut fee ASD
Swedish: får n sheep SAO
fä n.neut fee ASD
fäkta vb to fight ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: faihu n.neut fee LRC
Latin: pecten, pectinis n.masc comb W7
pecto, pectere vb to comb W7
pecūlātus n.masc corruption, embezzlement W7
pecūliāris adj re: private property W7
pecūlium n.neut private property W7
peculor, peculāri vb.dep to defraud the State W7
pecūnia, pecūniae n.fem wealth, riches LRC
pecūniārius adj pecuniary W7
pecūniōsus adj pecunious W7
pecus, pecoris n.neut fee, domestic animal ELD
Medieval Latin: feodum n.neut treatise W7
Old French: fief n.masc land, castle, property W7
Anglo-French: enfeoffer vb to enfeoff W7
feoffement n.masc feoffment W7
feoffer vb to enfeoff W7
Italian: pecora n.fem sheep LRC
pecorino n.masc pecorino LRC
Lithuanian: pẽkus n cattle LRC
Greek: κτείς n.masc comb, rake LS
kten- pfx comb W7
ktenoeidēs adj ctenoid, comb-like W7
Avestan: fšu- n cattle LRC
Sanskrit: pā́śu- n.masc cattle LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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