Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. pel-, pelə-, plē-   'to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?'

Semantic Field(s): to Pour, Full, Town, City


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: (h)il adj many RPN
lán adj full RPN
lín(a)id vb to fill RPN
Irish: feal adj fell, bad, evil, naughty ASD
Breton: leun adj full RPN
Cornish: le(u)n, luen adj full RPN
Welsh: llawn adj full RPN
Old English: æl-fæle, eal-felo adj dire, baleful, lit. all-fell ASD/RPN
eal-fela adj very much, lit. all-much LRC
fæle, fel(o) adj fell, baleful, pernicious ASD
fe(a)la, fæla, feola adv/adj.indec very; much, many ASD
fīfealde n butterfly LRC
folc n.neut folk LRC
ful(l) adj full, filled ASD/RPN
fulla n fullness RPN
fyllan vb.wk to fill (up) ASD/RPN
psealm n.masc psalm ASD/W7
Winter-fylleþ prop.n October, lit. winter-fills (month) ASD
Middle English: accomplisshen vb to accomplish W7
complement n complement W7
complet adj complete W7
fel adj fell W7
fillen vb to fill W7
folk n folk W7
full adj full W7
implement n implement W7
palpable adj palpable W7
pavilon n pavilion W7
plenitude n plenitude W7
plente n plenty W7
plural n plural W7
policie n government, policy: sagacity W7
politik adj politic W7
poly- pfx poly- W7
psalm n psalm W7
psalterie n psaltery W7
replenisshen vb to replenish W7
replete adj replete W7
supplien vb to supply W7
surplus n surplus W7
English: accomplish vb.trans to perform, execute fully AHD/W7
acropolis n upper fortified part of ancient Greek city AHD/W7
complement n something that completes/fills up/makes perfect AHD/W7
complete adj entire, possessing all necessary parts AHD/W7
compliment n expression of respect/esteem/affection/admiration AHD/W7
comply vb.intrans to be ceremoniously courteous AHD/W7
cosmopolis n cosmopolitan city AHD/W7
cosmopolite n cosmopolitan person/organism AHD/W7
deplete vb.trans to empty of principal substance AHD/W7
expletive adj serving to fill up AHD/W7
Felaróf prop.n Eorl's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
fell adj cruel, fierce, savage, deadly W7
felon n villain, criminal, evildoer W7
fill vb to add/insert as much/many as is normal/possible AHD/W7
Folca prop.n 13th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Folcred prop.n Rohan prince in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Folcwine prop.n 14th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
folk n people, kindred tribes forming nation AHD/W7
folkmoot n general assembly of shire residents AHD/W7
full adj containing as much/many as is normal/possible AHD/W7
Herrenvolk prop.n master race AHD/W7
implement n article serving to equip AHD/W7
metropolis n mother city/state of colony AHD/W7
necropolis n cemetery AHD/W7
nonplus n state of confusion/perplexity/bewilderment AHD
nonplus vb to bewilder, be/put at loss AHD
palp n palpus: arthropod mouthpart AHD/W7
palpable adj tangible, able to be felt/touched AHD/W7
palpate vb.trans to examine by touch AHD/W7
palpation n examination by touch AHD/W7
palpebra n eyelid AHD
palpitate vb.intrans to throb, beat rapidly/strongly AHD/W7
paludal adj marshy, re: fens/marshes AHD/W7
papilionaceous adj resembling butterfly (esp. in shape) AHD/W7
papillon n slender toy spaniel (dog) resembling chihuahua AHD/W7
papillote n curlpaper AHD/W7
pavilion n large sumptuous tent AHD/W7
piu adv more AHD/W7
plebe n common person; military academy freshman AHD/W7
plebeian n Roman commoner AHD/W7
plebiscite n direct vote where electorate may accept/refuse proposal AHD
plebs n populace, common people AHD
pleiotaxy n increase of number of whorls in inflorescence AHD
pleiotropism n control (by single gene) of multiple phenotypic effects AHD
Pleistocene adj re: geologic epoch early in Quaternary LRC
plenary adj full, complete AHD/W7
plenipotentiary n person invested with power to transact business AHD/W7
plenitude n fullness, completeness AHD/W7
plenty n abundance, full supply AHD/W7
plenum n space full of matter AHD/W7
pleonasm n using more words than necessary AHD/W7
plerocercoid n solid elongate infective tapeworm larva AHD/W7
plethora n bodily condition re: excess blood AHD/W7
plethysmograph n instrument measuring variation in body part size based on blood volume AHD
plural adj [grammatical form denoting] more than one/two AHD/W7
plus prep increased by, with addition of AHD/W7
police n government unit exercising power re: community morals/safety/prosperity AHD/W7
police n.obs policy AHD/W7
policlinic n dispensary/department of hospital treating outpatients AHD/W7
policy n sagacity, wisdom/prudence in managing affairs AHD/W7
policy n document wherein insurance contract is made AHD/W7
polis n city-state in ancient Greece AHD
politic adj political AHD/W7
political adj re: government W7
polity n political organization AHD/W7
poly- pfx multi-, much/many, several AHD/W7
polydactyl adj having abnormally many digits W9
polymer n chemical compound of repeating structural units W7
polypnea n panting, rapid breathing AHD
polypod adj having many feet AHD
polytene adj re: large multistranded chromosomes with chromomeres in contact AHD
poori n light unleavened bread of India/Pakistan AHD
propolis n brownish resinous material from tree buds AHD/W7
psalm n sacred song/poem used in praise/worship of deity AHD/W7
psaltery n ancient stringed instrument resembling zither AHD/W7
replenish vb to stock, fill with persons/animals AHD/W7
replete adj fully/abundantly provided AHD/W7
supplement vb to complete, add to W7
suppletive adj supplying, suppletory, supplemental AHD/CDC
supply vb to add as supplement AHD/W7
surplus n amount remaining when use/need is satisfied AHD/W7
terreplein n level space behind parapet (to mount weapons) AHD/W7
Winterfilth prop.n Shire calendar's October in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Scots English: fell adj keen, hot, acute ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fal adj fell, violent ASD
fel, ful adj.indec much, many; very ASD
fella, folla, fullia vb to fill ASD
folk n.neut folk ASD
ful, fol adj full ASD
Frisian: fol adj full ASD
folck n folk ASD
foll, full adj.indec much, many; very ASD
folljen vb to fill ASD
Dutch: fel adj fell, violent ASD
politie n police TLL
veel adj.indec much, many; very ASD
vleermuis n bat TLL
vol adj full ASD
volk n.neut folk ASD
vullen vb to fill ASD
Old Saxon: filo, filu adj.indec much, many; very ASD
fletharmūs n bat KSW
fol, ful adj full ASD
folc, folk n.neut folk, group ASD
fullian vb to fill ASD
Low German: full, vull adj full ASD
vullen vb to fill ASD
Old High German: fīfaltra n butterfly W7
filo, filu adj.indec much, many; very ASD
fledarmūs n bat, moth KNW
folc(h), folk n.neut folk ASD/W7
fol(l), full adj full ASD/W7
fulljan vb to fill ASD
Middle High German: vālant n devil RPN
vil adj.indec much, many; very ASD
vol adj full ASD
volc n.masc folk ASD
vüllen vb to fill ASD
German: Falter n moth, butterfly LRC
Fledermaus n bat TLL
füllen vb to fill ASD
Herrenvolk n Herrenvolk, lit. lord folk AHD/W7
Poliklinik n.fem policlinic W7
Polizei n police TLL
viel adj.indec much, many; very ASD
Volk n.neut folk ASD
voll adj full ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: fleiri adj.comp more, further; other LRC
fólk n.neut folk, men, troop, host of warriors LRC
fullr adj full, in full swing LRC
Old Icelandic: felms-fullr adj alarmed, frightened RPN
felmtr n sudden fear, fright RPN
fīfrildi n butterfly LRC
fæla vb to scare, frighten RPN
fæling adj frightening RPN
Icelandic: fjöl- pfx much ASD
fōlk n.neut folk ASD
fullr adj full ASD
fylla vb to fill ASD
Danish: folk n.neut folk ASD
fuld adj full ASD
fylde vb to fill ASD
politi n police TLL
Swedish: fjäril n butterfly SAO
flädermus n bat TLL
folk n.neut folk ASD
full adj full ASD
fylla vb to fill ASD
polis n police TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: filu adj great, very much RPN
filu n.str.neut much, many LRC
fulljan vb to fill, fulfill RPN
fullō n fullness RPN
fulls adj full LRC
us-filma adj frightened, astonished RPN
us-filmei n astonishment RPN
Latin: complementum n.neut complement W7
compleo, complēre vb to complete, fill up W7
completus vb.ptc completed, filled up W7
depleo, deplēre vb to fill W7
depletus vb.ptc filled W7
expleo, explēre vb to fill out W7
expletus vb.ptc filled out W7
impleo, implēre vb to fill up W7
palpatus vb.ptc palpated, caressed W7
palpitatus vb.ptc striken W7
palpito, palpitāre vb to be agitated W7
palpo, palpāre vb to stroke, caress W7
palus, palūdis n.fem swamp, marsh W7
pāpilio, pāpiliōnis n.masc butterfly W7
plebeius adj re: plebe(s) W7
plebs, plebis n.fem plebe, masses, common people LRC
plenitudo n.fem plenitude W7
plēnus, plēna, plēnum adj plenary RPN
pleō, plēre vb to fill, fulfill RPN
plerusque, pleraeque, pleraque adj most, re: majority LRC
pluralis adj plural, diverse W7
plurimum adv especially, very much LRC
plūs, pluris adj.comp more LRC
politicus adj political W7
poly- pfx many W7
psalterium n.neut psaltery W7
repleo, replēre vb to fill up W7
repletus vb.ptc filled up W7
suppleo, supplēre vb to supplement, fill up W7
Vulgar Latin: accompleo, accomplēre vb to accomplish W7
Late Latin: expletivus adj filling out W7
implementum n.neut action of filling up W7
metropolis n.fem metropolis, mother-city W7
necropolis n.fem necropolis, dead-city W7
palpabilis adj palpable W7
plēnārius adj entire, plenary W7
plenipotens, plenipotentis adj plenipotentiary W7
plenitas, plenitatis n.fem fullness W7
pleonasmus n.masc pleonasm W7
politia n.fem government, political organization W7
psalmus n.masc psalm W7
Medieval Latin: plenipotentia n.fem investment with full power W7
plenipotentiarius adj.n.masc plenipotentiary W7
plethora n.fem plethora, multitude W7
superplus n.masc surplus W7
terraplenum n.neut median, terreplein W7
New Latin: cosmopolis n.fem cosmopolitan city W7
palpus n.masc flattery W7
plenum n.neut space full of matter W7
Portuguese: cheio adj full TLL
Spanish: cumplimiento n.masc compliment W7
cumplir vb to complete, perform what is due W7
lleno adj plenary TLL
Old French: acomplir vb to complete, accomplish AHD
fel adj fell, wicked ASD
paveillon n.masc pavilion W7
plein adj full W7
plenté n.fem plenty, fullness W7
replenir vb to replenish W7
Middle French: acomplir vb to accomplish W7
complet adj complete W7
plénitude n.fem plenitude W7
plurel adj plural, re: many W7
police n.fem policy: document, certificate W7
policie n.fem government, regulation, policy: sagacity W7
politique n.fem politic W7
psalterie n.fem psaltery W7
replenir vb to refill, replenish W7
replet adj replete W7
soupleier vb to supplement, fill up W7
surplus n.masc surplus, overflow W7
terreplein n.masc median, terreplein W7
French: accomplir vb to complete, accomplish AHD
clinique n.fem medical office W7
compliment n.masc compliment W7
papillon n.masc butterfly W7
papillote n.fem papillote, candy in colorful twisted paper W7
plèbe n.fem plebe W7
plein adj plenary TLL
Old Italian: polizza n.fem policy: document, certificate W7
terrapieno n.masc terreplein W7
Italian: complimento n.masc compliment W7
complire vb to comply W7
fello adj fell, wicked ASD
pieno adj plenary TLL
più adv piu W7
Lithuanian: peteliške n.fem butterfly W7
pilìs n.fem castle LRC
pìlnas, pilnà adj plenary RPN
Latvian: pils n castle RPN
Old Church Slavonic: plaxъ n dread, fear, fright RPN
plašiti vb to scare, frighten RPN
plъnъ adj plenary RPN
Albanian: plot adv quite, fully, completely IEW
politik adj political LRC
Homeric Greek: πλέων adj.comp more LRC
πλῆθος n.neut mass, multitude, quantity LRC
πλήθω vb to be/become full RPN
πτόλις n city, citadel RPN
Greek: ἀκρόπολις n.fem acropolis, citadel on a hill LRC
ἐμπίπλημι vb to fill LRC
kosmopolitēs adj cosmopolitan W7
mētropolis n.fem metropolis, lit. mother-city W7
nekropolis n.fem necropolis, lit. city of the dead W7
πάλλω vb to sway, to shake, to swing RPN
πελεμίζω vb to shake, make tremble RPN
πίμπλημι vb to fill LRC
πλεῖστος adj.sup most LRC
pleiōn adj.comp more W7
pleonazein vb to be excessive W7
pleonasmos n.masc pleonasm W7
πλέος adj full RPN
plēthōra n.fem fullness W7
πλήρης adj full (of) LRC
πληρόω vb to fill LRC
πολεμέω vb to fight, be at war LRC
πολέμιος adj/n.masc hostile, inimical; enemy LRC
πο̑λεμος n.masc war LRC
πόλις n.fem polis, city, citadel LRC
politeia n.fem polity, government, constitution W7
politeuein vb to be a citizen, engage in political activity W7
politēs n.masc citizen W7
πολιτική n.fem politics LRC
πολιτικῶς adj/adv political; like statesmen LRC
πολύς adj many LRC
συμπληρόω vb to fill up LRC
psallein vb to pluck, play stringed instrument W7
psalmos n.masc hymn, twanging of a harp W7
psaltērion n.neut psaltery W7
Armenian: li adj full RPN
Sanskrit: palvala n pond W7
pí-parti vb to fill, sate, nourish RPN
purú-ḥ adj much, many, abundant RPN
pū́r n city; wall, fortress RPN
pūrṇá-ḥ adj full, filled RPN
pṛṇā́ti vb to fill RPN
prāṇa-ḥ adj full, filled RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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